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Taking Care of Patients Safely Pitt County Memorial Hospital
Let’s not learn patient safety by accident… • Willie King, age 51 with a history of diabetes, consented to a have a below knee amputation on his right foot. Surgeons amputated is left foot in error. • Prior to surgery, Willie joked with the medical staff, “You know which one it is, don’t you? I don’t want to wake up and find the wrong one gone.”
Let’s not learn patient safety by accident… • Joan Faulkner was badly burned in a hospital in North Carolina when a cauterizing tool ignited the oxygen that she was receiving during a routine surgical procedure. Her top lip was burned off, her face, neck and chest suffered 2nd and 3rd degree burns.
The Costs of Mistakes • The Institute of Medicine estimates 44,000 to 98,000 deaths occur each year due to medical errors • An additional 100,000 deaths occur each year from hospital-acquired infections, half of which were preventable • Probability of a patient dying in a hospital due to an human error is 1 in 300.
Why Do Events Happen? Sometimes an error occurs, but an event or injury is prevented by an internal system of checks Significant events or injuries Sometimes multiple errors line up to allow a significant event or injury to occur From Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents, James Reason
Human Error Classification There are 3 major categories of errors • Skill-based errors • Rule-based errors • Knowledge-based errors
Human Error Classification Skill-Based Errors Errors made when performing acts or tasks while utilizing skills on “auto-pilot” Skill-based errors most often occur during lapses in attention (e.g. when we’re pressed for time, or when the action is so routine we don’t pay attention).
Human Error Classification Rule-Based Errors Errors made when performing acts or tasks that require application of rules accumulated through experience and training Types of Rule-Based Errors • Wrong Rule • Misapplication of Correct Rule • Non-Compliance with Rule
Human Error Classification Knowledge-Based Errors Errors made when performing acts related to new or unfamiliar situations that require problem solving or when a rule does not exist or is unknown to the performer Types of Knowledge-Based Errors • Decision-making • Problem solving
Behavior Based Expectations & Tools to Assist in the Reduction of Errors
BBE #1: Pay Attention to Detail Focus attention to always think before we act. Why should we do this? • To avoid unintended slips or lapses • To reduce the chance that we’ll make an error when we’re under time pressure or stress When should we do this? • Before we act, speak, and document
Stop: Think: Act: Review: Pause for 1 to 2 seconds to focus on what you’re about to do Think about what you’re about to do – focus on the action Concentrate and perform the task Check to see if the task was done right Error Prevention Tool Self Checking Using STAR
BBE #2: Communicate Clearly Communicate correct information in a timely and appropriate manner. Why should we do this? • To ensure that we hear things correctly and that we understand things correctly • To prevent avoid wrong assumptions and misunderstandings that could cause us to make wrong decisions When should we do this? Whenever we communicate information – either in person or over the phone – that could affect the care and safety of a resident or an employee
1 2 3 Error Prevention Tool 3-WayRepeat Backs When information is transferred... Sender initiates communication using Receivers Name. Sender provides an order, request, or information to Receiver in a clear and concise format. Receiver acknowledges receipt by a repeat-back of the order, request, or information. Sender acknowledges the accuracy of the repeat-back by saying, That’s correct! If not correct, Sender repeats the communication.
Error Prevention Tool Clarifying Questions Ask 1 to 2 clarifying questions When in high risksituations When information is incomplete When information is ambiguous WHY: To reduce the probability of making a wrong assumption. Asking clarifying questions reduces the risk by 2 1/2 times!! HOW: Phrase your clarifying questions in a positive way and in a manner that will get an answer that improves your understanding of the information
A Alpha B Bravo C Charlie D Delta E Echo F Foxtrot G Golf H Hotel I India J Juliet K Kilo L Lima M Mike N November O Oscar P Papa Q Quebec R Romeo S Sierra T Tango U Uniform V Victor W Whiskey X X-Ray Y Yankee Z Zulu Error Prevention Tool Phonetic Clarifications letter followed by a word that begins with the letter. For example: For sound alike words, say the letter followed by a word that begins with the letter. For example:
Error Prevention ToolNumeric Clarifications For sound alike numbers, say the number and then speak each digit of the number. For example: 15…that’s one-five 50…that’s five-zero
BBE #3: Handoff Effectively Handoff patients or tasks by giving appropriate information and ensuring understanding and ownership. Why do we have this behavior? • To ensure that complete and accurate information about the patient, project, or task is communicated when responsibility transfers from one individual to another When should we practice this behavior? • When turning responsibility for a patient, project, or task to another individual
Error Prevention Tool SBAR for an Effective Handoff When transitioning care to another physician, or when requesting a consult on a patient, use the SBAR technique to organize your communication Situation:Describe the situation, patient or question Background: Highlight the important information, precautions, issues Assessment: Outline your read of the situation, problems and precautions Recommendation: State your recommendation, request or plan
BBE #4: Support Each Other • Speak Up for Safety by using the Triple A technique Ask (Do you think we should order a CXR?) Advocate (I think we need to order a CXR.) Assert (I’m concerned that we may miss something if we don’t get a CXR.) • Tips Use the lightest touch possible… When asserting, use the safe word: “concern” If not successful and you’re still worried, then use chain of command
Top 3 Statements to Encourage Critical Thinking1 • “What do you think?” • “That is an interesting question” • “Let’s explore this” Encourage Questions Encourage questions by inviting questions and positively reinforcing questions when asked. Asking a question is an emotional security issue. Foster a culture of critical thinking by encouraging questions. Invite questions, and use positive reinforcement when questions are asked. 1 Rubenfeld, “Critical Thinking Tactics for Nursing”