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Conventional Cooking Techniques

Conventional Cooking Techniques

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Conventional Cooking Techniques

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  1. Conventional Cooking Techniques FACS Standards 8.5.1, 8.5.2, 8.5.3, 8.5.4, 8.5.5, 8.5.6, 8.5.7 Kowtaluk, Helen and Orphanos Kopan, Alice. Food For Today. McGraw Hill-Glencoe. 2004.

  2. Involves cooking foods in hot water, steam, or a combination • Long, slow moist-heat cooking tenderizes meat; blends flavors of foods • Boiling, simmering, steaming, pressure cooking Moist-heat Methods

  3. Suitable for corn on the cob and pasta • Other foods tend to overcook and fall apart • Nutrient loss is high • Toughens protein BOILING

  4. Be sure to use pan large enough for the food and the water • Bring liquid to a boil; then add food; liquid should continue to boil as food is added • Useful method when you want water to evaporate quickly – thicken sauce or concentrate flavor of a soup

  5. Differs from boiling in that the bubbles rise gently and just break the surface • Used to cook many foods – fruits, vegetables, and less tender cuts of meat and poultry • Some nutrients are lost SIMMERING

  6. Use water when possible • To simmer, bring water to a boil; add food; when water begins to boil again, reduce the heat so food simmers • Slow cooker can be used to simmer foods – meats and dry beans

  7. A form of simmering • Involves covering small pieces of food with liquid and simmering until done STEWING

  8. A form of simmering • Simmer food in small amount of water until done • Eggs, whole fruits, and fish often prepared this way POACHING

  9. Cooking food over, not in, boiling water • Food usually in a steamer basket that fits inside pan • Boil small amount of water in bottom of pan; place basket in pan; cover to trap steam Steaming

  10. Water does not touch food • Vegetables and fish often cooked this way • Foods retain their color, shape, and flavor well • Few nutrients are lost • Cooking time longer

  11. Cooking food in steam under pressure • Cooks 3-10 times faster because cooks in temperatures above 212o F • Best for foods that take a long time to cook – less tender cuts of beef, poultry, dry beans, soups, one-dish meals, vegetables Pressure Cooking

  12. All the advantages of steaming plus faster

  13. Cooking food uncovered without added liquid or fat • Roasting, baking, broiling, pan-broiling Dry-heat Methods

  14. Cooking food uncovered in a conventional or convection oven • Roasting – cooking a large, tender cuts of meat or poultry • Baking – breads, cookies, vegetables, poultry, fish, casseroles Roasting and Baking

  15. Gives tender meat and poultry a flavorful, crispy brown crust • Use shallow, uncovered pan with a rack Roasting

  16. Preheat oven 10 minutes before use; place pans in middle of oven for even cooking • If pans touch oven sides creates a hot spot – area of concentrated heat – overcooking food Baking

  17. If baking several pans at once, place them diagonally opposite of one another for better air circulation

  18. Cooking food under direct heat • Broiler pan placed below a burner or heating element • Heat radiates down, cooking food quickly • Tender cuts of meat and poultry, fish, fruits, and some vegetables Broiling

  19. Already cooked foods can be broiled a short time to brown them • Melt cheese toppings • Pan has 2 parts – slotted grid holds the food and drip pan, which catches the drippings during cooking

  20. To broil, set oven control to broil – can’t control temperature • The farther you place the food from the heat source the slower the cooking time, but food will cook all the way through

  21. Similar to broiling except the heat source is below the food Outdoor Grilling

  22. Range top dry heat cooking • Hamburgers, tender cuts of steak, and some cuts of pork • Cook quickly and retain minimum amount of fat Pan-Broiling

  23. To pan-broil, cook food in heavy skillet over medium heat; don’t add fat; as fat accumulates, pour it off or remove with a baster

  24. Cooking food in oil or melted fat Frying

  25. Brown foods in skillet with small amount of fat • Low to medium heat • Chopped vegetables (onions and peppers), small pieces of meat and fish Sautéing

  26. Similar to sautéing but with larger pieces of meat, poultry, or fish • Food may need turning several times during process for even, complete cooking • Often used to brown meat before cooking in moist heat Pan-frying

  27. “French frying” • Food immersed in hot fat and cooked until done • Used for tender foods – vegetables and some breads (doughnuts) Deep-Fat Frying

  28. Use deep-fat fry thermometer for correct temperature

  29. Every fat has a smoking point – temperature at which fat gives off irritating smoke and breaks down chemically • No longer good for cooking Smoking Point

  30. Animal fats – butter, lard – have low smoking points • Vegetable fats – safflower, soybean, corn, and peanut oils – relatively high smoking point – best choices for frying

  31. Best cooking method for food often combination of methods • Braising and stir-frying – methods combining dry-heat and moist-heat cooking Combination Methods

  32. Brown food then long period of simmering to tenderize the food and enhance the flavor • Large, less tender cuts of meat and poultry Braising

  33. Use Dutch oven or heavy pot with tight-fitting lid • Brown food on all sides; add seasonings and small amount of liquid; cover the pot • Can be done either on stovetop or in oven at 350o F • Vegetables are often added near end of cooking time

  34. Frying and moist-heat cooking • Small pieces of food quickly fried in small amount of fat; stirred constantly to avoid sticking; small amount of liquid added near end of cooking time; pan covered to allow food to steam briefly Stir-Frying

  35. Began in Asia • Most often used for cooking mixtures of vegetables and other foods • Traditional pan used is a wok, but regular skillet works well