AKS 41:Post WWII Georgia *The student will evaluate key post-World War II developments of Georgia from 1945 to 1970* a. Analyze the impact of the transformation of agriculture on Georgia’s growth. b. Explain how the development of Atlanta, including the roles of mayors William Hartsfield and Ivan Allen Jr., and major league sports, contributed to the growth of Georgia. c. Discuss the impact of Ellis Arnall
Agricultural Transformation after WWII • Agriculture was no longer as important after WWII • During the war many had moved from farms to work in wartime industries and factories. • Demand for cotton fell when synthetic fabrics such as rayon and nylon began to be used • Trees, peanuts, soybeans and corn were planted instead of cotton • Poultry became a major industry
Agricultural Transformation after WWII • Farm machinery allowed fewer • workers to work more land • Farms grew – 1940 average • size was 110 acres and in 1950 • it was 1299 acres • Population shifted from rural areas to urban areas (cities) • In 1940 66% of GA’s population was rural and 34% was urban • In 1970 40% of GA’s population was rural and 60% was urban
Development of Atlanta • Returning veterans were able to attend college on the G.I. Bill or buy houses • Suburbs or residential areas around cities were built • Businesses moved to the state for various reasons • Mild climate • Low business and individual tax rates • GA was a non-union state so businesses could pay lower wages and not deal with labor demands from unions
Development of Atlanta • Growth of aviation created more • jobs (Hartsfield-Jackson Airport) • Interstate highway system was • developed under President Eisenhower in the 1950s. • GA’s economy diversified. By 1954, around 800 new industries had started in Atlanta • Almost 1200 national corporations had Atlanta offices • People moved to GA for the jobs • Descendents of African Americans who left after the Civil War began to return as racial discrimination was replaced by moderation, integrated schools, improved economic opportunities and a higher standard of living
Development of Atlanta • Atlanta annexed (adding territory to an existing city or town) over 100 square miles • Today, more than half of the state’s population is in the Atlanta metropolitan area
William B. Hartsfield • Served as mayor of Atlanta for • 6 terms 1937-1941 and 1942-1961 • Helped make Atlanta an • aviation hub for the Southeast • Chose the site for the Atlanta • airport • Helped lead the city in the area of civil rights • 1946 - After white primaries were outlawed, he organized a biracial coalition that worked on voter registration drives. • 1948 – hired 8 black police officers for restricted duties
William B. Hartsfield • 1958 – asked state to allow Atlantans to decide whether to keep integrated schools open • State was refusing to fund integrated schools • 1960 – state committee found overwhelming support for keeping schools open • Atlantans thought keeping public schools open was more important than issues involving school integration
William B. Hartsfield • 1955 – city’s golf courses integrated without incident • 1957 – city busses integrated • August 30, 1961 – four all-white high schools in Atlanta were integrated without incident • 1961 - local Chamber of Commerce joined Hartsfield and local African American leaders in ending lunch counter segregation
Ivan Allen Jr. • Served as mayor of Atlanta for 2 terms from 1962 – 1970 • Continued Mayor Hartsfield’s approach to peaceful integration • Ordered removal of the “Colored” and “White” signs on all entrances and exits to City Hall • Removed restrictions on African • American police officers • Integrated city’s fire dept and city • government
Ivan Allen Jr. • Oversaw construction of a number of public facilities including the Peachtree Center and Atlanta Fulton County Stadium • With new businesses moving to Atlanta skyscrapers and office buildings were built in the downtown area • He is credited with bringing professional sports to Atlanta
Ellis Arnall • Governor from 1943 – 1947 • First to serve a 4 year term • Youngest governor in the nation • Corrected problems with the university accreditation that Gov. Eugene Talmadge created. • General Assembly passed a constitutional amendment that made the Board of Regents a separate organization, no longer under the control of the governor’s office.
Ellis Arnall • Removed the prison system from the governor’s control • Established Board of Corrections to oversee prisons • Established Pardon and Parole Board • Abolished the poll tax • Led GA to become the first state to grant 18 year olds the right to vote in state elections • When young men were drafted during WWII he argued that individuals who were old enough to fight for their country were old enough to vote.