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Research Design. Minjuan Wang ED 690, EDTEC, SDSU . mwang@mail.sdsu.edu. Basic vs. Applied. The development of Interpersonal relationships in online chat rooms How does playing video games affect children’s learning styles?.

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research design

Research Design

Minjuan Wang

ED 690, EDTEC, SDSU

mwang@mail.sdsu.edu

basic vs applied
Basic vs. Applied
  • The development of Interpersonal relationships in online chat rooms
  • How does playing video games affect children’s learning styles?
  • How can these theories be used to help people develop romantic relationships in online chat rooms (e.g., eharmony)?
  • Can playing video games help these children develop media literacy skills?
examples of applied research
Examples of Applied Research
  • Action (or practitioner) research
    • ongoing improvement of practice
    • a cycle of plan -> act -> study the act -> learn from the study -> act again -> ...
  • Evaluation research
    • Formative: How have I met the objectives of my life?
    • Summative
      • Has my life been worth living?
qualitative interpretive quantitative research
Qualitative (interpretive) & Quantitative Research
  • Think in terms of how to do the study
    • View of the world: holistic vs. variables
    • Primary data types
    • Naturalistic settings or manipulation
    • Researcher involvement
    • Data analysis
    • Report writing
traditional chinese vs western medicine
Traditional Chinese vs. Western Medicine
  • The "whole body" health approach
    • sees the person as an integral Mind/body organism
    • Emotional, mental life, physical symptoms
    • stimulate the body’s natural healing potential by treating root causes rather than just symptoms
quantitative design
Quantitative Design
  • Descriptive/Survey Research
    • to describe
    • customer service
  • Correlational Research
    • Not “causation”
  • Causal-Comparative Research
    • The personal, social, and family characteristics of angry teens
  • Experimental Research
    • Independent variable: manipulated
descriptive
Descriptive
  • Collecting numerical data to test hypotheses or answer questions concerning current status.
  • Through self-reports, questionnaires or interviews, or through observations.
  • A study to determine the beliefs of EDTEC graduate students.
correlational
Correlational
  • Are ages of EDTEC graduates related to job satisfaction?
  • Do stock prices correlate with employee training?
  • Do Big Bob test scores correlate highly with other intelligence test? Do they correlate highly with people's self-esteem and height?
causal comparative
Causal-Comparative
  • The cause, or reason, for existing differences in the behavior or status of groups of individuals
  • Gender, ethnicity, personality, height…
  • Behaviors
    • Smoking
    • Insomnia
    • Lack of motivation
experimental
Experimental!!!
  • One-Shot Case Study
  • One-Group Pretest-Posttest
  • Quasi-Experimental
    • No random assignments
  • Pretest-Posttest Control Group
  • Posttest-Only Control Group
  • Factorial Design
    • two or more separate independent variables
examples
Examples
  • Bob’s Online Experiments
  • http://coe.sdsu.edu/ed690/mod/mod11/app.htm
qualitative interpretive research
Qualitative (Interpretive) Research
  • Case Study
    • The ABC Nightline programs
  • Ethnography
    • the cultural patterns and perspectives
    • cultures of work and family; women's employment and care of children; media and culture; gender, race, and generation; education, race, and the American dream
  • Grounded Theory
  • Historical
content analysis
Content Analysis
  • Can be both
  • Exam campaign speeches on the war and examine the number of positive and negative words.
    • Is there a strong presence of positive or negative words in the Clinton speech?"
  • What are the major themes in the campaign speech and how they are related?
    • identifying, coding, and categorizing the primary patterns in the data
the research evaluation dichotomy real or contrived
The research/evaluation dichotomy: real or contrived?
  • Not method or subject matter
  • But intent--the purpose for which it is done
  • Evaluation leads to
    • conclusions, and to get to them requires identifying standards and performance data and the integration of the two.
types of evaluation questions
Types of evaluation questions
  • Descriptive
    • Goals, objectives, procedures, processes, and outcomes of a program
  • Normative
    • Evaluate the program’s goals & objectives by multiple values
  • Impact
    • Outcomes: impact on client or stakeholder
major types of evaluation design
Major types of evaluation design
  • Survey
    • Descriptive and normative
  • Case study
  • Field experiment
    • Mostly in impact analysis
    • TSA; Cox; Kaiser
  • Secondary data analysis
question from danny
Question from Danny…
  • According to the ADDIE model of designing instructions, I understand that the 'E' represents evaluation and it is an important element of the instructional design process. I considered myself new to the work of an instructional designer and would like to know what are the pertinent and frequently asked questions in the evaluation phase. Would also appreciate if someone can advise me how you actually go about implementing the evaluation as well as the difficulties encountered. Thanks a lot!Danny
answer from ummon
Answer from Ummon
  • There are many kinds of evaluation and many ways to proceed through instructional design...
  • E-learning addition: the software development cycle on top of that usability testing, quality testing, etc...
  • Narrow down your question to something more specific.
answer from tbh some models
Answer from TBH: some models
  • Kirkpatrick’s (1994) model
    • Reaction, learning, behavior, & results
      • How?
    • Outcome-focused
    • Appropriate for all settings
    • Intel: attitude, achievement, performance, impact
  • Philips (1997) model
    • Go beyond cultural/organizational impact
    • Return on Investment
another model to evaluate e learning
Another model to evaluate E-Learning
  • Systematic, flexible, multidimensional model (Mngania & Hatcher)
    • The Onion Model
      • Look and feel of a program
      • Peel its layers to see the actual quality
    • Learner, technology, instruction, instructor, institution, and community
    • The evaluation matrix
      • Interaction of all these factors
evaluating distance education simonson 1997
Evaluating Distance Education (Simonson, 1997)
  • The Best way to find things out is not to ask questions at all.
  • Like firing off a gun—bang….
  • Sit still and pretend not to be looking
    • Little facts peck around your feet
    • Situations will venture forth
    • Intentions will creep out
    • If you are patient, you’ll see and understand a grat deal
evaluating distance education simonson 199725
Evaluating Distance Education (Simonson, 1997)
  • The Best way to find things out is not to ask questions at all.
  • Like firing off a gun—bang….
  • Sit still and pretend not to be looking
    • Little facts peck around your feet
    • Situations will venture forth
    • Intentions will creep out
    • If you are patient, you’ll see and understand a grat deal
evaluating distance education 2 simonson 1997
Evaluating Distance Education (2) (Simonson, 1997)
  • Woodley & Kirkwood’s Summary of Evaluation procedures
    • Activity, efficiency, outcomes, program aims, policy, organization
  • AEOIU approach to evaluation
    • Accountability, effectiveness, impact, organizational context, unanticipated consequences
models of evaluation
Models of evaluation
  • Stufflebeam: 1956--CIPP (context, input, process, & product)
    • America’s educational reform
  • Tyler’s objectives-based model
    • Sort of like the behaviorism in design
  • Constructivist, heuristic approach:
    • Scriven’s goal free model
    • Participants-centered; discovery
    • Influenced by qualitative approach
  • Wstake(1973): responsive model
  • Adversary model in the 70s
  • Developmental mode
    • Involve people of color in the evaluation process of a multicultural education project