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Chemical Equations and Reactions. Chapter 8. Chemical Reactions. Def: process in which one or more substances are changed into new substances Start w/ REACTANTS and make PRODUCTS Law of Conservation of Mass – mass of reactants must = mass of products. Chemical Equations.

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chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions
  • Def: process in which one or more substances are changed into new substances
    • Start w/ REACTANTS and make PRODUCTS
    • Law of Conservation of Mass – mass of reactants must = mass of products
chemical equations
Chemical Equations
  • Def: uses symbols and formulas to represent identities of molecular or molar amts of a rxn
  • 2H2(g) + O2(g)  2H2O(l)
indications of rxn
Indications of Rxn
  • Evolution of heat and energy as light
  • Production of Gas (bubbles)
  • Formation of precipitate (insoluble compound)
  • Color change
chemical equations5
Chemical Equations
  • Word Equations – gives names of reactants and products
  • Calcium + Oxygen  Calcium oxide
chemical equations6
Chemical Equations
  • Formula Equations – use chemical symbols for the reactants and products
  • Word: Calcium + Oxygen  Calcium oxide
  • Formula: Ca + O2  CaO
  • Remember HONClBrIF – only for LONE element
  • Balance Charges when needed
complete chemical eqn
Complete Chemical Eqn
  • BaCl2(aq) + Na2CrO4(aq)  BaCrO4(s) + 2NaCl(aq)
  • Formulas, Phases, Balanced
  • Ca(s) + O2(g)  CaO(s) (not balanced)
  • Solid sodium oxide is added to water and forms sodium hydroxide (dissolved in water).
balancing equations11
Balancing Equations
  • Making a bicycle?
  • 4 major parts 
  • Frame + wheel + handlebar + pedal  bicycle
  • 1 Frame (F) 2 Wheels (W)
  • 1 Handlebar (H) 2 Pedals (P)
balancing equations12
Balancing Equations
  • Bicycle =

FW2HP2

  • Equation:
  • F + W + H + P  FW2HP2
  • Unbalanced  Balance it!
  • F + 2W + H + 2P  FW2HP2
balancing equations13
Balancing Equations

H2 + O2  H2O

  • Count # of atoms on each side of equation
  • Can only change COEFFICIENTS!!
  • Coefficients are in lowest whole # ratio
  • If can, treat polyatomic ions as one unit
  • If equation isn’t balancing… equation is WRONG!
balancing equations14
Balancing Equations
  • FeCl2 + Na3PO4  NaCl + Fe3(PO4)2
  • Al + O2  Al2O3
types of reactions16
Types of Reactions
  • Synthesis (combination)
  • Decomposition
  • Single-Displacement
  • Double-Displacement
  • Combustion
1 synthesis reactions
1. Synthesis Reactions
  • Two or more reactants form ONE product
  • A + X  AX
  • Elements w/ O2 or S to make oxides or sulfides
  • 2Ca + O2  2CaO
  • CO2 + H2O  H2CO3
2 decomposition reactions
2. Decomposition Reactions
  • ONE compound broken down into two or more smaller parts
  • Reverse of combination
  • AX  A + X
  • Decomposition using electric  electrolysis
  • CaCO3 CaO + CO2
3 single displacement rxns
3. Single-Displacement Rxns
  • A single element replaces another element in a compound
  • A + BX  AX + B
  • Y + BX  BY + X
  • BX and AX are generally IONIC compounds  A and B are elements
activity series
Activity Series
  • A MORE reactive metal will REPLACE a less reactive metal
  • Pg. 286 Activity Series
  • metals replace metals or H
  • nonmetals replace nonmetals
  • Cl2 + KI  ?
  • Zn + MgCl2  ?
3 single replacement rxns
3. Single-Replacement Rxns
  • Mg + CuSO4
  • Zn + H2O 
4 double replacement rxns
4. Double-Replacement Rxns
  • Atoms or ions from two different compounds replace each other
  • AX + BY  AY + BX
  • X and Y “switch”
  • CaCO3 + 2HCl  CaCl2 + H2CO3
  • HNO3 + Ca(OH)2 
5 combustion rxns
5. Combustion Rxns
  • Substance combines with O2 releasing large amts of heat and light
  • (C-H) Compound + O2 CO2 + H2O
  • Similar to combination rxn
  • CH4 + O2 
predict the products
Predict the Products
  • MgSO4 + Na 
  • Synthesis of Aluminum oxide from its elements.
  • Combustion of ethane, C2H6
  • Decomposition of calcium oxide to its elements
rate influencing factors
Rate-Influencing Factors
  • Collision Theory: reactions occur because of collisions between particles
  • Inc. rate of reaction = inc. collisions
  • Surface Area:
  • Temperature:
  • Concentration:
  • Catalyst:
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