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Restaurant Operations

Restaurant Operations

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Restaurant Operations

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  1. Introduction to Hospitality, Lodging and Food Services Operations Restaurant Operations John R. Walker Chapter 7

  2. Front of the House • Includes anyone with guest contact from the hostess to the bus person • Curbside appeal: Keeping the restaurant looking attractive and welcoming • Restaurant is run by a General Manager, or restaurant manager • Depending on size and sales volume, there may be more managers with other responsibilities • Managers should all be cross-trained to relieve each other

  3. Restaurant Organizational ChartFigure 7-1

  4. Front of the House • The hostess, host, or greeter is responsible for greeting the guests and the rotation of arriving guests among sections or stations • Servers introduce themselves and offer a variety of beverages and/or specials, and invite guests to select from the menu • This is known as suggestive selling

  5. Front of the House • Seven steps of table service: • Greet guests • Introduce and suggestively sell beverages • Suggest appetizers • Take orders • Check back after two bites • Sell another drink • Sell dessert and suggest after dinner drinks • Servers are also expected to be NCO (neat, clean, and organized)

  6. Restaurant Forecasting • Formulating a budget that projects sales and costs for a year on a weekly and monthly basis • Forecasting restaurant sales has 2 components: Guest counts or covers and the average guest check • Guest counts or covers: The number of guests patronizing the restaurant over a given time period • Average guest check: Calculated by dividing total sales by the number of guests

  7. Restaurant Forecasting • The year is divided into twelve28-day periods and one 29-day period. • These 13 accounting periods are used to better compare one period to another

  8. Restaurant Forecasting

  9. Production Forecasting Quantity Demand ProductionDemand Forecasting Models Historical Records Production Forecasting

  10. Production Demand Production Demand Underproduction Overproduction

  11. Historical Records • Date and Day of the Week • Meal or Hour of Service • Notation of Special Event, Holiday & Weather Conditions • Food Items Prepared • Quantity of Each Item Prepared • Quantity of Each Item Served

  12. Service • Today, quality is more important to all restaurant guest in every country • Quality is often the one area that sets one restaurant apart from its competition • A new standard in restaurant service has emerged; a less formal yet professional approach is preferred by restaurant diners

  13. Service Quality

  14. Quality in the Foodservice System • Quality is not a program; it is an approach to business. • Quality is defined by the customer through his or her satisfaction. • Quality is aimed at performance excellence; anything less is an improvement opportunity. • Quality increases customer satisfaction, reduces cycle times and costs, and eliminates errors and rework.

  15. Approaches to Quality Six Sigma Quality Assurance Total Quality Management Continuous Quality Improvement Kaizen Reengineering Lean Theory of Constraints

  16. Components of TQM • Intense focus on the customer. • Concern for continual improvement • Focus on process • Improvement in quality of everything the company does • Accurate Measurement • Empowerment of Employees

  17. Quality Standards Quality Standards Professional Practices in College & University Foodservice ISO9000 The Joint Commission Keys to Excellence

  18. ISO 9000 Standards Customer Focus Leadership Involvement Of People Process Approach Systems Approach to Management Continual Improvement Factual Approach to Decision Making Mutually Beneficial Supplier Relations

  19. Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Strategic Planning Leadership Customer & Market Focus Measurement, Analysis & Knowledge Management Human Resource Focus Process Management Business Results

  20. Types of Restaurant Service • American Service: Food is placed onto plates in the kitchen, carried into the dining room, and served to guests • Restaurants in the United States, Canada, and many other parts of the world all use American service

  21. Suggestive Selling • Suggestive selling is an important tool to increase food and beverage sales • Guests are not usually offended with suggestive selling techniques • Through training, servers become sellers • Guests will be more likely to be receptive to suggestions from competent servers (Cm Ylmz)

  22. Front of the House Restaurant Systems • Point-of-sale (POS) systems: • Used to track food and beverage charges and other retail charges that may occur at a hotel or restaurant • Kitchen Display Systems: • Printers in the kitchen are replaced with video monitors and presents orders to kitchen associates along with information on how long orders are taking to be prepared

  23. Front of the House Restaurant Systems • Guest Services Solutions: • Applications that are designed to help a restaurateur develop a dining relationship with guests • Applications include a frequent-diner management program, delivery management with caller ID interface, and guest accounts receivable to manage home accounts and gift certificate management

  24. Back of the House Restaurant Systems • Includes inventory control, food costing, labor management, and financial reporting features • Wireless POS Systems: • Allows the servers to use a handheld personal digital assistant to send orders to the kitchen • Labor Management: • Includes a human resources module to track hiring, employee personal information, vacation, security privileges, tax status, availability, and any other information pertinent (concerning) to employees working at a restaurant

  25. Back of the House Restaurant Systems • Financial Reporting: • Posts data into a relational database located on the central server • The restaurant manager uses these data for reporting and decision making, profit and loss reports, budget variances, end-of-day reports, and other financial reports are generated • Personal Digital Assistants: • Help hospitality businesses stay effective and efficient by improving time management and helping with faster service

  26. Food Production • Based on expected volume of business • The sales from the previous year gives a good indication of the expected volume and a breakdown of the number of sales for each menu item • The kitchen manager checks the head line cook’s order, which will bring the prep area up to the par stock for prepared items • Prep work is done prior to service times

  27. Food Production • The cooking line is the most important part • The size of the kitchen and its equipment are designed according to the sales forecast for the restaurant and the menu • The kitchen is also set up according to what the customers prefer and order most frequently

  28. Kitchen/Food Production • Staffing and Scheduling: Crucial for the successful running of a kitchen • Training and Development: Implementing a comprehensive training program is vital in the kitchen, due to a high turnover rate

  29. Kitchen/Food Production • Production Procedures:Relates directly to the recipes on the menu and amount of product on hand to produce the menu • Production sheets: • Count the product on hand (par levels). • Determine production level.

  30. Kitchen/Food Production • Management involvement and follow-up: • Management should know first-hand what is going on in the back of the house • As management spends more time in the kitchen,more knowledge is gained, more confidence is acquired, and more respect is earned

  31. Production Schedule Information • The Unit • Menu Item • Production Date • Over- and Underproduction • Meal • Quantity to Prepare • Actual Customer Count • Substitutions • Weather • Actual Yield • Special Events • Additional Assignments • Employee Assignments • Special Instructions & Comments • Preparation Time Schedule • Prepreparation

  32. Ingredient Control Ingredient Control Standardized Recipes Ingredient Assembly

  33. Ingredient Assembly • Advantages of Centralized Ingredient Assembly • Centralized Ingredient Control • Function of the Ingredient Room • Ingredient Room Organization • Ingredient Room Staffing

  34. Recipes(resipiis) Recipes Standardization Format

  35. Recipe Standardization Quantity Adjustment Product Evaluation Recipe Verification

  36. Quantity Adjustment FactorMethod Direct Reading Measurement Tables Method Percentage Method

  37. Production Methods Cooking Methods Moist Heat Dry Heat

  38. Moist Heat Cooking Methods • Boiling • Blanching(haşlama) • Simmering(slow boiling) • Braising(kısık ateş) • Stewing(Güveç) • Steaming(buharla pişirme) • Poaching(çılbır)

  39. Moist Heat Equipment Moist Heat Equipment Steam-Jacketed Kettles Steamers

  40. Dry Heat Cooking Methods • Roasting • Barbecuing • Baking • Rotisserie Cooking (şiş) • Oven Frying • Sautéing (sote) • Broiling • Pan Frying(kızartma) • Grilling • Deep Fat Frying

  41. Dry Heat Equipment Broilers Grilling Specialized Barbeque Equipment Deep Fat Fryer Oven Multifunction Equipment Charbroiler, Salamander & Cheesemelter Clamshells Basic Open Pit,Cylindrical Smokers, Closed-Pit Ovens, Gas or Electric Rack Ovens & Pressurized BBQ Smokers Foods are immersed in Fryer Baskets Hot-Air Ovens, Infrared Broilers & Microwave Ovens Combi-oven, Tilting Fry or Braising Pan & Convection / Microwave Oven

  42. Employee Recognition • An extremely important aspect of back-of-the-house management • Recognizing employees for their efforts creates a positive work environment that motivates the staff to excel and to ultimately produce consistently better-quality food for the guests

  43. Purchasing • Restaurant operators set up purchasing systems that determine the following: • Use of standards(product specifications) • System of control for theft and loss • Par stock and reorder points • Who will do the purchasing? • Who will handle receiving, storage, and issuing?

  44. Food Cost Control ProcessFig. 7-3

  45. Purchasing • Product specification: Established standards for each product • Par Stock: The stock level of a product that must be on hand at all times • The person ordering should never be the same person receiving • Purchase order: An order to purchase a certain quantity of an item at a specific price- comes as a result of the product specification

  46. Receiving, Storing, Issuing • The purpose of receiving is to ensure the quantity, quality, and price are exactly as ordered • Items should only be issued from the stores on an authorized requisition, signed by the appropriate person • First In – First Out (FIFO) ensures stock rotation by placing the most recent purchases behind the previous purchases

  47. Budgeting • Fixed costs are constant regardless of the volume of business • Fixed costs are rent/lease payments, interest, and depreciation • Variable costs fluctuate with the volume of business • Variable costs include controllable expenses such as payroll, benefits, direct operating expense, music and entertainment, marketing and promotion, energy and utility, administrative, and repairs and maintenance

  48. Restaurant Accounting • A balance sheet reflects how the assets and liabilities relate to the owner’s equity at a particular moment in time • The Operating or Income Statement includes sales, cost of goods sold, gross profit, labor and overhead expenses, and net profit • Managing the money to the bottom line requires careful scrutiny(inspection)of all results, beginning with the big-ticket controllable expenses