slide1
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
KARAKTERISTIK BUAH DAN SAYUR

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 31

KARAKTERISTIK BUAH DAN SAYUR - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 505 Views
  • Uploaded on

KARAKTERISTIK BUAH DAN SAYUR. UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA 2013. Tujuan Matakuliah :. Mahasiswa mengetahui dan memahami karakteristik BUAH DAN SAYUR serta mengetahui efek pengolahan terhadap karakteristiknya. . KARAKTERISTIK BUAH & SAYURAN. Tanaman Sebagai bhn pangan

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'KARAKTERISTIK BUAH DAN SAYUR' - tova


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1
KARAKTERISTIKBUAH DAN SAYUR

UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA

2013

slide2
TujuanMatakuliah:

Mahasiswa mengetahui dan memahami karakteristik BUAH DAN SAYUR serta mengetahui efek pengolahan terhadap karakteristiknya.

slide4
TanamanSebagaibhnpangan

AkarBatangDaunBungaBuahBiji

SayurdanBuah

  • Sayurdanbuah secaraanatomitdkdptdibedakan
  • Dibedakanberdasarkanpenggunaannya :

- Sayur biasadimakanbersamamakananutama(nasi)

-Buah  sebagaidessert ( dimakansegar )

slide5
BUAH =bagiantanamanhasilperkawinanputikdanbenangsari

mrpktempatbiji

 mempunyai rasa manisasam, warnadan aroma yang khas

  • SAYURAN= bagiantanaman (akar, daun, buah, biji, batang ) umumnyatanaman yang umurnyarelatifpendek
  • tdkberasamanis, warnadantekstur yang beragam
slide6
Kenampakan visual
  • Indikatorfisik
  • Analisakimia
  • Indikatorfisiologis

INDIKATOR PANEN

buah sayur
BUAH & SAYUR
  • Kadar air tinggi > 70% - 85%
  • Kadar protein : tidaklebih 3,5%
  • Kadar lemak : tidaklebih 0,5%

(kecualialpokat)

  • Sumberkarbohidrat, 2 jenis :

dapatdicerna (gula, pati)

tidakdapatdicerna : dietary fiber (seratmakanan)

  • Sumber mineral dan vitamin
  • Zatwarna (pigmen)
komposisi buah
KomposisiBuah

Dipengaruhibeberapafaktor :

  • Perbedaanvaritas
  • Keadaaniklimtempattumbuh
  • Pemeliharaantanaman
  • Cara pemanenan
  • Tingkat kematanganwaktudipanen
  • Kondisiselamapemeraman
  • Kondisipenyimpanan
sayur
SAYUR
  • Tanamanhortikultura
  • Umurtanamanrelatifpendekdibandingbuah-buahan (< 1 th)
  • Bukantanamanmusiman
  • Setiapjenis/varitas :

warna, rasa, aroma dankekerasanberbeda

  • Sumber mineral dan vitamin
tekstur buah dan sayuran
TEKSTUR BUAH DAN SAYURAN
  • Dipengaruhiturgordarisel-sel yang masihhidup
  • Turgor : tekanandariisiselterhadapdindingsel
  • Dindingselmempunyaisifatelastis
  • Isikandunganselberkurang : sayuranlemas
  • Isikandunganselbertambahmelebihikapasitasdindingsel, selpecah, isiselkeluar, keteguhanselhilang
faktor faktor mempengaruhi turgor
FAKTOR-FAKTOR MEMPENGARUHI TURGOR
  • Konsentrasibahan-bahandidalamsel yang akanmenentukantekanan osmosis
  • Permeabilitasprotoplasma
  • Elastisitasdindingsel
komposisi buah dan sayur
Komposisi Buah dan Sayur

Carbohydrates

Represent more than 90 % of dry matter

  • Sugar

such as glucose, fructose, maltose and sucrose, all share the following characteristics :

- supply energy for nutrition

- readily fermented by ……

- may used as a preservative

- on heating they darken colour ..

- combine with … to give dark colour as …

slide16
Starches

- supply energy in nutrition

- firming of plant tissues

slide17
Pectin and carbohydrates gums

- in colloidal solution contribute to viscosity

- in solution with sugar and acid are thebasis of jelly

slide18
Cellulose and hemicellulose

- act primarily as supporting structures

- insoluble in cold and hot water

- not digested, not yield energy

slide19
Mineral Substances
  • 0,6 – 1,80 % ( K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Al, P, Cl, S)
  • salt of organic acid
  • complex organic combination (chlorophyll, lecithin, etc)
  • Ca and P essential for calcium fixation (Ca/P) : 0,7 for adults and 1,0 for children
  • vegetable rich in P and Ca : green bean, cabbage and onion
  • fruit rich in P and Ca : pears, lemon, oranges
slide20
Vitamins
  • function as enzyme systems which facilitate the metabolism
  • Divided into two major groups (fat soluble and wet soluble)
  • Examples :
  • Vitamin A/ Retinol found in the orange and yellow vegetables and green leafy vegetables
  • Vit C / ascorbic acid and Vit E favours the absorption of iron and easily destroyed by oxidation at high temp.
slide21
Organic acids
  • such as citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, etc
  • these acids gives some function :

1. Fruit tartness and flavour

2. Slow down bacterial spoilage

3. Influence the colour of food

slide22
Pigment

sources of colour

classified into four major groups :

Chlorophylls

- oil soluble, bound to protein molecules

- C alone is highly unstable (acid pH)

- C changes becoming pheophytin (on heating), can be protected by addition alkali to the cooking or canning water

slide23
Carotenoids

- fat soluble

- fairly resistant to heat, change in pH and water leaching

- very sensitive to oxidation

slide24
Flavonoids

- water soluble

1. Anthocyanin

  • shifting of color with pH
  • violet/blue in alkaline or metal ions
  • red in acid media

2. Anthoxanthin

  • pH sensitives
  • deeper yellow (in pH >8) and
  • whiter yellow (in pH <6)
slide25
Enzymes

biological catalyst promote biochamical reaction

Hidrolase (lipase, invertase, tannase, etc)

oxidoreductase (peroxide, catalase, etc)

Some properties :

  • control the reaction associated of ripening
  • responsible for changing of flavor, color, texture and nutritional properties
  • activity of enzyme is characterized by an optimal temp and pH
major factors of fruit and vegetables deterioration
Major factorsof fruit and vegetables deterioration
  • Growth and activities of microorganism
  • Activities of natural food enzymes
  • Temperature, both heat and cold
  • Moisture and dryness
  • Air and in particular O2
  • Light
methods of reducing deterioration
Methods of reducing deterioration

Thetechnical methodscan be summarizedas follow :

  • Physical method
  • Chemical method
  • Biochemical method

FOOD PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY

slide29
Fresh fruit and vegetables

- Possibilities of damage?

- How to prevent?

slide30
Minimally processes
  • Factors causing deterioration?
  • How to prevent?
slide31
Fully processed food

- Factors influencing the quality?

- How to maintain the quality and retard the deterioration?

ad