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Iterate (Requirements, Design)

Iterate (Requirements, Design)

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Iterate (Requirements, Design)

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  1. Iterate (Requirements, Design) IMD07101: Introduction to Human Computer Interaction Brian Davison and Tom McEwan 2011/12

  2. Content • The relationship between requirements and design • Process models • Functional and non-functional requirements • Use cases • Coursework general feedback

  3. Requirements and design • Iterate: repeat until done

  4. Structured process (the old way) Requirements specification Analysis Design Implementation Testing

  5. Agile process (the new way) Brief Product

  6. Establishing requirements • Gathering • Generation • Elicitation • Engineering • Initial data collection • Interviews • Questionnaires • Observation • Think aloud protocols • Refining requirements • Review prototypes • Walk-throughs • Focus groups

  7. Types of requirement • Functional requirements • Define what the system must do • Can be tested • Either works or not • Non-functional requirements • Define all other requirements • Include usability goals, performance goals, etc. • Need to be evaluated • May depend on users' preferences

  8. Example: personal agenda Functional Non-functional Runs on Android, iPhone and Windows phone Personalised theme Multilingual Under 2s start up Operates without Internet Attractive to UK teenagers • Store/alter/delete appointments • Deliver reminders • Synchronise with Google calendar

  9. Use cases • Describe functional requirements • "Units of interaction" • Define interactions between actors and the system Personal agenda Store appointment Alter appointment Delete appointment Owner Deliver reminder Synchronise System

  10. Detailed use cases UC1: Store appointment Actor: Owner • Choose day • Choose time • Enter detail • Enter duration • Save UC2: Delete appointment Actor: Owner • Locate appointment • Delete UC3: Deliver reminder Actor: System Trigger: system time = appt. time • Display appointment detail • Sound audible alarm Exception: • Sound turned off

  11. Relationships between use cases Personal agenda <<extends>> Manage appointment Store appointment <<extends>> <<extends>> Owner Alter appointment Delete appointment <<includes>> <<includes>> Find appointment Deliver reminder Synchronise System

  12. Defining NFRs

  13. Design principles (Benyon) • Visibility • Consistency • Familiarity • Affordance • Navigation • Control • Feedback • Recovery • Constraints • Flexibility • Style • Conviviality

  14. Techniques Prototyping Personas Scenarios Storyboards Sketches Interviews Focus groups User testing Interviews Questionnaires Observation Brief Product

  15. Short break

  16. Coursework • In 1000 words (+/- 10%), • explain how design techniques can be used to enhance the usability and accessibility of an interactive system. • You must discuss examples that you have seen in lectures, tutorials and practicals in this year's delivery of the module. • Make sure that you draw appropriate distinctions between principles (what to do) and techniques (how to do it).

  17. Important elements • Design techniques • Methods for doing design • PACT analysis • Brainstorming • Personas • Scenarios • Storyboarding • Usability • Accessibility • Examples

  18. Possible structure State purpose of report • Introduction • Definitions • Usability • Accessibility • Design techniques • General benefits • PACT analysis • Personas • Scenarios • Storyboarding • Conclusion Set the context For each example technique, explain the benefits for usability and accessibility and provide examples

  19. Common errors 1 • No mention of design techniques • Failed to distinguish between techniques for design and others • Failed to distinguish between techniques and principles • Failed to explain the link between a technique and the usability and accessibility of the final product

  20. Common errors 2 • Description of features rather than process • Majority of report spent on definitions • High-level recommendations • In my opinion... • "There are many techniques..." • Poor use of terminology – eg HCI