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IS COMMUNITY BASED TOURISM RESPONSIBLE TOURISM?. TOURISM STAKEHOLDERS FORUM Arusha – Tanzania June 3, 2010. By Henry Waruhiu. Outline. CBT – What Is It? Why CBT? Why NOW? What needs to be done?. COMMUNITY BASED TOURISM.

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IS COMMUNITY BASED TOURISM RESPONSIBLE TOURISM?


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    1. IS COMMUNITY BASED TOURISM RESPONSIBLE TOURISM? TOURISM STAKEHOLDERS FORUM Arusha – Tanzania June 3, 2010 By Henry Waruhiu

    2. Outline • CBT – What Is It? • Why CBT? • Why NOW? • What needs to be done?

    3. COMMUNITY BASED TOURISM • CBT) is responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and sustains the well-being of local people. • Rooted in the local community • Preserves the natural environment, social and cultural values • Addresses economic needs of the local people • Involves local residents in the running and management of tourism projects

    4. COMMUNITY BASED TOURISM • What are the indicators for responsible tourism? • From which perspective should they be measured? Community? Government? Tour operators? Tourists? Development partners? • Is it possible to measure them from all perspectives? • Is there a conflict between internationally developed indicators with those the communities would seek?

    5. WHY CBT? • There is evidence that the majority of CBT initiatives enjoy very little success • There is a major gap between the academic • definition of the concept and the way it is used by practitioners. • Challenges of market access and governance in CBT. • Lack of consensus in the definition of CBT. • Has CBT been over-romanticized?

    6. WHY CBT? • Tourism revenues globally are in excess of US$4 trillion. • What percentage of this do communities receive in Tanzania? Where do the rest of tourism dollars go?

    7. WHY NOW? • Market access for CB tourism products (sub-national level competitiveness) • Low level of skills and knowledge • Lack of sector-specific skills • Government policies: Are they more conducive today than before?

    8. Is CBT Responsible Tourism? • Responsible Tourism is tourism ‘that creates better places for people to live in, and better places to visit’. • Is CBT then responsible tourism? • Is “responsible tourism” a marketing gimmick? • What is SUCCESSFUL Community Based Tourism? • Has CBT been responsible tourism? If not can it become so?

    9. Two contrasting cases • Selenkei • Namunyak • What lessons do we learn?

    10. Dilemmas • CBT stimulated by an external private sector player may have more challenges • NGO-driven CBTs may not be sustainable (if sustainability is seen as part of “responsible tourism”) • Community-driven tourism may shift human-wildlife conflict to human-human conflict unless certain preconditions are observed.

    11. What are these preconditions? • Acquisition of knowledge and skills? • Well grounded management and governance structure? • Sharing of profits and re-investing these back to the community? • Stimulating an entrepreneurial culture within the community members? • Government policy on tourism?

    12. Final Thoughts • More than 125 indicators developed, but by who? For who? And For what? • Political – 32 • Social – 28 • Ecological – 25 • Economic – 24 • Technological – 3 • Cultural – 13 • Can they be all monitored? Are these all?

    13. hwaruhiu@esamihq.ac.tz hwaruhiu@yahoo.com Asante sana