(3) Health Communications Interventions 6 Formats What Works? (4) Policy-Focused Interventions What Works? E) Recommendations Community Based Programs Prevention Interventions Recommendations for Type of Interventions Advocacy, Media Relations, and Legislation
(4) Policy-Focused Interventions
Community Based Programs
Recommendations for Type of Interventions
Advocacy, Media Relations, and Legislation
Partnerships and CollaborationSTD Prevention Programs
Skills-building workshops/programs, (proper condom use, negotiation, refusal)
Multi-session behavior change groups,
Face-to-face counseling programs
Cognitive-behavioral small group,
Condom distribution to and
Testing and treatment of sex workers and other sexually active individuals at high risk.Types of InterventionsIndividual-Focused Interventions
For injecting drug users & youth in high risk situations,
Contact with street outreach programs was a consistent predictor of having a condom at post-enhancement interviews, and
Having a condom at these interviews was a strong predictor of condom use with steady and casual partners (Anderson, 1998).Types of InterventionsIndividual-Focused Interventions:2 Examples from the field
The crafting and delivery of messages and strategies, based on consumer research, to promote the health of individuals and communities.
Is a process that is enhanced by other disciplines.
Messages must be customized in such a way that they are interesting, relevant, and captivating to the audience(s).
Messages should be clear, easy-to-understand, & easy to act on.
Social marketing techniques applied to health communication campaigns have been shown to be effective in crafting health messages that "speak" to target audiences.Types of Interventions:Health Communication Interventions
Radio, television, magazines, and newspapers.
most effective when used strategically and in combination with other efforts.
Brochures, disease-specific fact sheets, STD Treatment Guidelines
Posters, billboards, flip charts, talk boards, models, display boards, and fotonovelas
help learners remember important information better than just reading or hearing alone
especially useful for demonstrating or modeling a specific behavior.
Role playing, storytelling, games, drama, songs, music, contests, fairs
are useful when social support or peer support is needed to learn a skill or behavior, and when working with low-literacy audiences
Internet and electronic media
CD-ROMs and Internet outreach
Is becoming an increasingly popular way to reach large numbers of peopleTypes of Interventions:Health Communication Interventions The 6 Formats
Systematic planning efforts and communication objectives that are attainable, measurable, clear, and time-bound.
Designing and delivering messages that are adapted to the needs, perceptions, preferences, and situations of the intended audiences.
Involve a "systems approach" & combine:
Multiple mass media approaches (TV, radio, print, etc.),
Training efforts, and
Activities by grass roots organizations that have credibility with the target audience(s).
Can attract more attention,
Reach more people in the community, and
Can create a perception that the campaign is exceptionally vigorous.Types of Interventions:Health Communication Interventions - What Works?
Interventions that attempt to influence laws, policies, and cultural norms.
Many of these interventions have had an important effect on risk behaviors and disease prevention.
Providing increased funding for drug and alcohol abuse treatment programs.
Support for sex education interventions that focus on subjects beyond abstinence alone.
Lifting constraints on condom availability (e.g., in schools, correctional facilities)Types of Interventions:Policy-Focused Interventions
Narrowly focused on reducing sexual risk-taking behaviors that can lead to STDs, HIV, or unintentional pregnancies;
Utilized social learning theories as a foundation for development;
Provided basic, accurate information about the risks of unprotected intercourse and methods for avoiding unprotected intercourse Through experiential activities designed to personalize this information;
Included activities that address social or media influences on sexual behaviors;
Reinforced clear and appropriate values to strengthen individual values and group norms against unprotected sex; and
Provided modeling and practice in communication and negotiating skills.Policy-Focused InterventionsWhat Was Shown to Work? Programs that...
are designed according to the results of a comprehensive needs assessment
are affordable and easy to access by the target population
are culturally competent
have clearly defined target group(s), interventions, program components, & objectives
focus on behavioral skills
do not provide messages that are judgmental, moralistic, or fear instilling
have ample duration and intensity to achieve lasting behavior change
provide support & skills necessary to cope with lapses & setbacks in maintaining safe behavior
address the social & community norms of the target population
are offered to the target group as part of a continuum of health care (e.g., drug & alcohol abuse treatment, HIV testing, family planning, & other health services)
address other basic needs of the targeted population (e.g., housing, food)
are regularly monitored to assure implementation is according to plan & that outcomes are being achievedEffective Behavioral Intervention ProgramsWhat Was Shown to Work? Programs that...
Recommendations for Community Based Programs
Recommendations for Prevention Interventions
Recommendations for the Type of Interventions
Advocacy, Media Relations, & Legislation
Partnerships & CollaborationRecommendations
Establish strategies for finding at-risk persons not identified by an infected index case or partner.
Evaluate or assess the social networks that influence disease transmission in their area.
Target screening based upon program morbidity data, including information on core transmission groups.
Use information from social network analysis, if available, to assist in targeting both field and clinic screening efforts.
Build partnerships with people affected by STDs to increase trust and to facilitate partner services and other interventions.
Assess which diseases are being transmitted within their jurisdiction and how, including partner selection patterns and other risk factors for infection.Recommendation 1:Community Based Programs Should...
Program managers should develop an appropriate plan for health communications interventions.
STD prevention programs should develop behavioral and social surveillance systems appropriate for their communities.
STD prevention programs should develop an appropriate plan for designing, implementing, and evaluating behavioral interventions based on local surveillance, demographic, and behavioral data within the community.
Program managers must evaluate the outcome of behavioral interventions.
Outcome measures should be linked with behavioral surveillance activities.Recommendation 2:Recommendations for Prevention Interventions
Program managers should develop interventions based on a sound theoretical knowledge and should utilize interventions shown to be effective.
Programs should collaborate with existing intervention programs such as TB and HIV, and with behavioral scientists as needed.
Programs should have trained, quality staff and quality assurance procedures in place when implementing interventions.
Programs should have an evaluation plan and results should be compared to established findings.
Interventions developed at the local level should have a strong evaluation plan.Recommendation 3:Recommendations for the Type of Interventions
Each program should have a system to ensure that laws affecting STD prevention are routinely reviewed and revised, or developed, as necessary.
Each state should have a complete set of legal authorities (statute or regulation with statutory authority) that contributes to the goals of STD prevention and reflects both sound scientific and technological developments. This set of legal authorities should include, but are not limited to, the following:
Morbidity reporting of defined diseases to include reporting of name, address, disease, sex, age, race, and source of report, date of report, and date of test
Laboratory reporting of positive tests to include date of report, date of test, name of physician, patient's name, age, race, sex, test performed, and test results
Confidentiality of STD records to the maximum extent legally possible including exemption from subpoena
Prenatal testing for STDs to include at least one serologic test for syphilis. In high morbidity areas and outbreak situations, serologic tests should be performed during the first and third trimester of pregnancy and at delivery
Ophthalmia neonatorum prophylaxis
Permission for minors to authorize their own STD examinations and treatment without parental consent and holding this and related information absolutely confidentialRecommendation 4:Advocacy, Media Relations, and Legislations
Partner with other groups such as:
corrections facilities, and
Have a system to assure ongoing interaction with all agencies, including community-based organizations (CBOs), that may affect STD prevention.
Establish referral arrangements for STD prevention activities with appropriate service providers.Recommendation 5:Partnerships and Collaborations