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Legal Aspects of Special Education and Social Foundations. Free and Appropriate Public Education and Least Restrictive Environment Chapters 9 & 12. FAPE. “Free” and “public” not disputed “Appropriate” education is often disputed Definition Provided at public expense Meet State standards

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Legal Aspects of Special Education and Social Foundations


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Legal Aspects of Special Education and Social Foundations Free and Appropriate Public Education and Least Restrictive Environment Chapters 9 & 12

    2. FAPE • “Free” and “public” not disputed • “Appropriate” education is often disputed • Definition • Provided at public expense • Meet State standards • Include appropriate education • Conforms with the IEP

    3. Procedural Safeguards • Provide notice to parents • Invite parents to participate • Secure parental consent • Make records available • Allow independent educational evaluation if in disagreement

    4. Free Education • Special education and related services provided at no charge • Refusal due to cost is not allowed • IDEA prohibits excuse of limited federal funding • Cost relevant only when options available are “appropriate”

    5. Free Education • Title XIX of the Social Security Act was amended in 1988 to assist in funding of needed services • Private insurance can also be funding source • Can allow fees that other students without disabilities are charged

    6. State Standards • Meet requirements of State Standards which may be higher • Includes requirements of licensure and certification for educators

    7. Appropriate Education • IEP for all students in special education • Responsibility of school district • Collaboration between parents and school personnel • Components of IEP must be complete • No guarantee of achievement • No liability of educators

    8. Related Services • Supportive services • Required to benefit from special education program • Reimbursement of services may be requested • Exclude medical services and devices • Must accompany special education

    9. School Health Services • Necessary to assist child to benefit from special education • Must be performed during school hours • Can be provided by a person other than a licensed physician

    10. Litigation • Irving Independent School District v. Tatro - “Bright-Line” test • Cedar Rapids Community School District v. Garret F. - medical v. school health services • Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson School District v. Rowley - appropriate education

    11. The Rowley Standard • Is the school complying with IDEA procedures? • Is the IEP designed reasonable to enable child to benefit from educational opportunities?

    12. Courts Role • Are procedural requirements being met? • Are the requirements of FAPE being followed? • Is special education providing educational benefit?

    13. 1993 Metaphor • Doe v. Board of Education of Tullahoma Schools • Cadillac v. Chevrolet

    14. Post-Rowley Litigation • Procedural aspects • Follow procedural safeguards of FAPE • FAPE is denied if safeguards are not followed • Substantive aspects • IEP is appropriate • Designed to achieve educational benefits

    15. Procedural Violations • W.G v. Board of Trustees - failed to include classroom teacher of private school in IEP process • Tice v. Botetourt County School Board - 6 month delay in evaluation and IEP • Spielberg v. Henrico County Public Schools and Hall v. Vance County Board of Education - violated parent participation and notification, resp.

    16. Substantive Violations • “Meaningful benefit” v. “some benefit” - Hall v. Vance County Board of Education • “Meaningful growth” - Carter v. Florence County School District Four • Polk v. Central Susquehanna Intermediate Unit 16 - any degree of progress

    17. Substantive Violations • Cypress-Fairbanks ISD v. Michael F. - four-part test • Individualized program based on assessment and performance • LRE • Coordinated and collaborative services • Academic and nonacademic benefits

    18. Methodology and FAPE • Disagreement with particular methodologies • Curriculum • Interventions • Extended school year

    19. Placement • Settings • Facilities • Equipment • Location • Personnel required • Determining placement • Tests • Recommendations • Conditions • Background • Adaptive behavior

    20. Placement Factors • Based on IEP • Annually reviewed • Least restrictive environment • As close to general education as possible • As close to home as possible

    21. Graduation • No longer eligible for FAPE under IDEA • Maximum age to receive services • Graduates from high school with regular diploma • Can receive FAPE until “age-out” of IDEA

    22. Standards • Achieved IEP goals • Written notice • Summary of academic achievement and functional performance

    23. IDEA ‘97 and ‘04 • Based on student needs • Measurable and meaningful progress • Scientific research-based programs • Ongoing evaluation