AMST 3100 The 1960s LBJ’s Great Society. Powerpoint 5 Read Chafe Chapter 8; Farber Chapter 5. Backdrop: Rise of Liberalism. In 1946, Cyril Connally helped define the emerging liberal ideology in his “Ten Indicators of a Civilized Society.” 1. Abolition of the death penalty
Read Chafe Chapter 8; Farber Chapter 5
In 1946, Cyril Connally helped define the emerging liberal ideology in his “Ten Indicators of a Civilized Society.”
Given the book burnings of the Hitler era, it became unpopular to advocate book burnings after WWII and there was a distinct increase in liberalism in Western cultures. However, there was less of an increase in liberalism in the American Deep South, where conservative religious groups occasionally burned books and rock music records during the 1950s, 60s, and later.
Lyndon Baines Johnson
This is a photo of LBJ being sworn in on the President’s plane soon after the assassination of John Kennedy on November 23, 1963. Johnson had been a key figure in the Senate before becoming Vice President in the Kennedy administration. He was therefore very familiar with the workings of Congress and was masterful at getting legislation passed.
Goldwater was an economic conservative. He was opposed to New Deal policies and crusaded against the federal government, welfare policies, and labor unions. But he was not a social conservative and would probably not identify much with the current Republican platform.
This is a painting of the USS Maddox, the ship involved with the Gulf of Tonkin incident. It was claimed at the time that the Maddox was attacked by three North Vietnamese torpedo boats while in international waters. It has been subsequently learned that the Maddox was actually doing electronic surveillance near North Vietnamese waters and that there probably was never a torpedo attack.
Note the dramatic drop in poverty under the Johnson policies. The war on poverty included many programs, some of which - like food stamps and guaranteed college loans - remain popular today. This war targeted both rural and inner city poverty, and was perhaps more effective at fighting rural poverty. Inner city poverty is partly related to the failure of private capitalists to provided urban jobs, and there is an on-going ideological debate over whether and how government should help with jobs.
The 1965 Watts riots reflected the anger and frustration of inner city racial minorities who were frustrated by years of racism, poverty, and neglect. The civil rights movement was a decade old by now and the war on poverty was already under way. Their expectations had been raised, yet little had changed in their lives.
The Detroit riots of 1967 were among the worst in the nation’s history. The causes included police racism and brutality, lack of inner city jobs, lack of affordable housing, urban renewal projects that were bulldozing black neighborhoods, and rising black militancy, among others. The War on Poverty had not produced enough tangible effects in the inner cities, and by 1967, Johnson had shifted his attention to the Vietnam conflict, angering inner city residents.