Examining the influence of a flipped mathematics classroom on achievement Dr. Anthony Dove Radford University
The Technology Opportunity in Education • Access to online material for teaching and learning is substantial and only growing • Students learn through the technology that is available • 20 years ago: books, DVDs, desktop computer • Today: cell phones, tablets, YouTube, Twitter, etc. • Technology provides new opportunities for reform teaching and active learning, which has shown positive results on achievement, engagement, etc. (Dori & Belcher, 2005; Judson & Sawada, 2001; Lawson et al., 2002)
The Teacher Struggle • Well-created lectures are easy to give to the masses • Student-centered instruction takes more time • More time to plan • More time to implement during class • Losing class time with an overfilled curricula creates additional stress on teachers (Hannafin, Burris, & Little, 2001) How can teachers integrate more meaningful instruction while still meeting the requirements of a full curricula? The Flipped Class Approach
“Flipped” What is a Class? Typical Class • Teacher lectures in class • If time permits, students practice briefly in class • Students complete homework on the lecture, teacher reviews homework next class and the cycle continues Flipped Class • Students watch lecture videos on upcoming material for homework • Class time is used to have students practice, collaborate, and complete engaging activities
Potential Advantages of a Flipped Classroom Currently there is limited research that specifically addresses a flipped classroom, but there is support for the different components of the flipped class • Students who sit in the front row performed better when assessed (Rosengrant et al., 2011) • A lecture video puts you in the front row with the teacher talking directly to you • Students with access to videos of in-class lectures performed significantly better when assessed (Yoon & Sneedon, 2011) • Accessibility allows students to learn any time, anywhere, and at their own pace • Transparency to classroom material assists in building trust among students, teachers, and parents (Goddard et al., 2001) • Even parents can watch the lecture videos and learn with their children
Research on the Flipped Classroom • Clintondale High School (Roscorla, 2011) • Significant increases in the pass rate on state tests in English and Math • Significant increase in attendance and a decrease in disciplinary referrals • Pierce (2013) • Pharmacy students performed significantly better during a flipped module • Dove (2013) • End-of-course surveys showed strong student preference toward the flipped class and active learning that occurred in flipped statistics classes
Purpose of the study • Substantive research is needed to determine whether the flipped class is a large-scale viable solution • Teacher support and professional development • School and classroom resources • Student attitudes, beliefs, and perception of learning • Student achievement Research Question Is there an impact on course achievement using the flipped classroom approach in comparison to a “business as usual approach”?
General Background • MATH 111: Mathematics for Elementary Teachers at a mid-size university • Course materials • Mathematics for Elementary Teachers (Beckmann, 2011) • Desire2Learn (D2L) • Lecture Videos • YouTube Handle: DrDoveMath • Created using Microsoft PowerPoint and www.screencast-o-matic.com
Method • Two sections of MATH 111 • Classes met Tuesday/Thursday back-to-back • One class taught with in-class lecture (LC), one taught with the flipped-class approach (FC) • Same sections covered the same day • Same tests, practice homework, projects, final exam • FC also required to watch videos for homework • FC worked more problems and did more activities during class since there was no lecture • Grades were collected for all assessments • Independent-samples t-test conducted to compare mean grades
Data Collection and Analysis Methods • Grades were collected throughout the entire semester and final exam • Independent-samples t-test conducted to compare mean grades • First Assessment • Last Assessment • Final Exam • Overall Course Grade No Pre/Post achievement test was used due to the overall project including an examination of math anxiety
Results Note: * p < 0.05, ** p < .01
Students’ Thoughts of the Flipped Class End-of-course surveys had ZEROnegative comments and over 40% of students in the flipped class made a positivecomment about the flipped class approach I loved the set up of the class! Doing the notes for homework and a lot of practice problems in class was super helpful! The thing that was the most helpful to me was the flipped classroom design. I was able to take my notes outside of class and then work with specific problems in class. I became more familiar with the material and I was able to understand it better. Don't change that!
Discussion • Gradual increased gap in achievement such that the final three achievement measures were significantly greater for the flipped class • Control for as many factors as possible leaves in-class instruction as primary difference • Limitations • Select population: Preservice elementary and Exceptional Education Students • Only two sections • Traditional: 28 students • Flipped: 35 students • Lack of Pre-test/Post-test Model
Current Research • Fall 2013: Examining Personal Flipped vs. Khan Academy vs. In-Class Lecture in MATH 111 classes • Math Anxiety • Math Achievement with Pre/Post Test • Spring 2014: Flipping two sections of MATH 112, examining influence of number of flipped courses • Math Anxiety • Perception of Math Ability • Math Achievement with Pre/Post Test • Long-term: Potential influence of flipped intro courses for STEM majors on retention and graduation rates
Questions? Dr. Anthony Dove Radford University Email: firstname.lastname@example.org