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Heat and Cold Related Injuries. Prevention and First Aid. Heat Related Difficulties. Heat Cramps Least severe of the three types of heat related difficulties Painful muscle spasms Usually occur in the legs and abdomen. Heat Related Difficulties. Heat Cramps

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heat and cold related injuries

Heat and Cold Related Injuries

Prevention and First Aid

heat related difficulties
Heat Related Difficulties
  • Heat Cramps
      • Least severe of the three types of heat related difficulties
      • Painful muscle spasms
      • Usually occur in the legs and abdomen
heat related difficulties3
Heat Related Difficulties
  • Heat Cramps
    • A result of loss of electrolytes (sodium and potassium) from perspiring (sweating assists our bodies in cooling off)
heat cramps prevention and first aid
Heat Cramps - Prevention and First Aid
  • Best way to deal with heat cramps is prevention:
      • Add a little extra salt at meals (getting enough salt is rarely a problem in the typical American diet
      • Eat foods rich in potassium - bananas, apricots, orange juice, nuts, tomato juice
      • Condition yourself gradually
heat cramps prevention and first aid5
Heat Cramps – Prevention and First Aid
  • First Aid for heat cramps:
      • Have victim rest (sit or lie down) in a cool place
      • Give cool water
      • Light massage and stretching
heat exhaustion
Heat Exhaustion
  • More serious than heat cramps
  • Similar to shock
  • Prevention
      • Drink plenty of fluids - plain water is best before, during and after exercise
      • Again, increase sodium and potassium naturally
heat exhaustion7
Heat Exhaustion
  • Avoid Gatorade and similar sports drinks as they actually inhibit fluid replacement, unless the activity is prolonged (over an hour).
treatment for heat exhaustion
Treatment for Heat Exhaustion
  • Treat mild cases the same as heat cramps (except do not stretch the muscles).
  • If persistent, gently apply wet towels and call EMS.
heat stroke
Heat Stroke
  • Also known as sunstroke
  • The most serious of the heat-related problems
  • Usually occurs in very hot and humid weather
  • The body can’t cool itself adequately
heat stroke10
Heat Stroke
  • Prevention
      • On days that are going to be hot and humid, run early or late in the day, avoiding the hottest part
      • Consume plenty of fluids before, during and after
heat stroke11
Heat Stroke
  • Recognize heat stroke symptoms in others
      • Hot, dry, flushed skin
      • Dizziness
      • Headache
      • Mental confusion
heat stroke treatment
Heat Stroke Treatment
  • Objective is to cool victim as quickly as possible
      • Get victim out of the heat; half-sitting position
      • Loosen tight clothing
      • Remove perspiration soaked clothing
      • If humidity is below 75%, Apply cool, wet cloths to skin or spray with water; if humidity is 75%+, apply ice packs on neck, armpits, groin.
heat stroke treatment13
Heat Stroke Treatment
  • Fan the victim
  • If victim is conscious, give cool water
  • Call for ambulance if victim refuses water, vomits, or starts to lose consciousness
cold related emergencies
Cold-Related Emergencies
  • Biological defense mechanisms to maintain body temperature during exposure to cold:
    • Vasoconstriction
    • Shivering
vasoconstriction
Vasoconstriction
  • Vasoconstriction is the tightening of blood vessels in the exposed skin
  • Reduced skin blood flow conserves body heat, but at a price:
    • Discomfort
    • Numbness
    • Loss of dexterity in the hands, fingers, and other extremities
    • Eventually cold injuries
shivering
Shivering
  • Shivering increases internal heat production and helps to offset the heat being lost.
  • Body’s main involuntary defense against the cold.
  • Shivering produces body heat by forcing muscles to contract and relax rapidly.
  • About 80% of the muscle energy used in shivering is turned into body heat.
  • Shivering reflex stops when the core body temperature falls to about 86 degrees F.
hypothermia
Hypothermia
  • Life-threatening condition
  • Main cause of death for many outdoor recreational activities such as snowmobiling, skiing, hiking and backpacking
  • Hypothermia - the body’s core temperature drops below 95 degrees
hypothermia18
Hypothermia
  • Signals of hypothermia:
    • Shivering
    • Numbness
    • Glassy stare
    • Apathy
    • Loss of consciousness
hypothermia19
Hypothermia
  • The temperature does not have to be below freezing for hypothermia to occur, e.g. 50 degrees on land and 70 degrees or less in the water
  • Factors in Hypothermia
      • moisture
      • wind
      • fatigue
      • improper clothing
hypothermia20
Hypothermia
  • Other factors in the development of hypothermia:
  • Age, e.g. elderly people in poorly heated homes
  • Alcohol
  • Diseases, e.g. C-V disease, diabetes
  • Length of exposure
ways in which the body loses heat
Ways in which the body loses heat
  • Respiration - exhalation of warm air removes a small amount of body heat
  • Radiation - any uncovered body surface will give up heat to the surrounding air, head and neck mostly
ways in which the body loses heat22
Ways in which the body loses heat
  • Convection - wind current blowing across body will accelerate temperature loss by quickly removing radiated heat
ways in which the body loses heat23
Ways in which the body loses heat
  • Evaporation - Perspiration or moisture on skin drying will have a cooling effect
  • Conduction - when sitting on the ground or leaning next to a cold or wet object, heat will be absorbed from the body.
safety tips to prevent hypothermia
Safety tips to prevent hypothermia
  • Always keep head covered
  • If clothes get wet, change into dry ones immediately
  • Wear clothes in layers
  • Don’t sit on ground if taking a break
  • Limit periods of inactivity in cold conditions
safety tips to prevent hypothermia25
Safety tips to prevent hypothermia
  • Maintain proper hydration and nutrition
  • Avoid alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine
  • Make a shelter if it begins to rain
  • Make camp before becoming exhausted
  • Carry high-energy foods
other heat related problems
Other heat related problems
  • Frostbite
  • Dehydration
  • Small children and elderly in hot cars
  • Sunburn
frostbite
Frostbite
  • Freezing of body tissues
  • Severity depends on air temperature, length of exposure, and wind
  • Can cause the loss of body parts
  • Signs of frostbite:
    • Loss of feeling (numbness)
    • Skin appears waxy
    • Skin is cold to the touch
    • Skin is discolored
frostbite28
Frostbite
  • First aid:
  • Warm the area by soaking in warm water (105 degrees)
  • Don’t rub affected area
  • Loosely bandage area after it has regained color and warmth
  • Gauze between fingers and toes
  • Don’t break blisters