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### Bayesian Support Vector Machine Classification

Vasilis A. Sotiris

AMSC663 Midterm Presentation

December 2007

University of Maryland

College Park, MD 20783

Objectives

- Develop an algorithm to detect anomalies in electronic systems (multivariate)
- Improve detection sensitivity of classical Support Vector Machines (SVM)
- Decrease false alarms
- Predict future system performance

Methodology

- Use linear Principal Component Analysis to decompose and compress raw data into two models: a) PCA model, and b) Residual model.
- Use Support Vector Machines to classify data (in each model) into normal and abnormal classes
- Assign probabilities to the classification output of the SVMs using a sigmoid function
- Use a Maximum Likelihood Estimation to find the optimal sigmoid function parameters (in each model)
- Determine the joint class probability from both models
- Track changes to the joint probability to:
- improve detection sensitivity
- decrease false alarms
- Predict future system performance

Flow chart of Probabilistic SVC Detection Methodology

1

0

-1

0

+1

D(x)

New Observation

R1xm

Likelihood

function

PCA

Model

Rkxm

Probability

matrix

D1(y1)

SVC

p

Health

Decision

Input space Rnxm

PCA Model

Decision boundary

Training data

Joint

Probabilities

PCA

Likelihood

function

Probability

matrix

D2(y2)

1

p

SVC

Trending of

joint

probability

distributions

Residual

Model

Rlxm

0

-1

0

+1

Baseline

Population

Database

D(x)

Residual Model

Decision boundary

Probability

Model

PCA

SVC

Principal Component Analysis – Statistical Properties

- Decompose data into two models:
- PCA model (Maximum variance) – y1
- Residual model – y2
- Direction of y1 is the eigenvector with largest associated eigenvalue l
- Vector a is chosen as the eigenvector of the covariance matrix C

x2

y2, PC2

y1, PC1

x1

Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) - Eigenanalysis

- SVD is used in this algorithm to perform PCA
- SVD
- performs eigenanalysis without first computing the covariance matrix
- Speeds up computations
- Computes basis functions (used in projection – next)
- The output of SVD is:
- U – Basis functions for the PCA and residual models
- L – Eigenvalues of covariance matrix
- V – Eigenvectors of covariance matrix

n x n

n x m

m x m

Subspace Decomposition

Residual Subspace

[R]

XR

- [S] –PCA Model subspace
- Detect dominant parameter variation
- [R] – Residual Subspace
- Detects hidden anomalies
- Therefore, analysis of the system behavior can be decoupled into what is called the signal subspace and residual subspace
- To get xs and xr we project the input data onto [S] and [R]

Data

Xs

[S]

PCA Model Projection

Raw Data

Residual Model Projection

Least Squares Projections

R

New Observation

- u – basis vector for PC1 and PC2
- v – vector from centered training data to new observation
- Objective:
- Find optimal p that minimizes v-pu
- This givesVp
- The projection equation is finally put in terms of SVD
- H=UkUkT
- k - number of principal components (dimensions for PCA model)
- The projection pursuit is optimized based on the PCA model

PC1

[S]

PC2

Data Decomposition

- With the projection matrix H, we can project any incoming signal onto the signal [S] and residual [R] subspaces
- G is an analogous matrix to H that is used to create the projection onto [R]
- H is the projection onto [S], and G is the projection onto [R]

Projection onto [R]

Projection onto [S]

Support Vector Machines

- The performance of a system can be fully explained with the distribution of its parameters
- SVMs estimate the decision boundary for the given distribution
- Areas with less information are allowed a larger margin of error
- New observations can be classified using the decision boundary and are labeled as:
- (-1) outside
- (+1) inside

x2

Soft decision boundary

Hard decision boundary

x1

Linear Classification – Separable Input Space

x2

Abnormal Class

M

- SVM finds a function D(x) that best separates the two classes (max M)
- D(x) can be used as a classifier
- Through the support vectors we can
- compress the input space by excluding all other data except for the support vectors.
- The SVs tell us everything we need to know about the system in order to perform detection
- By minimizing the norm of wwe find the line or linear surface that best separates the two classes
- The decision function is the linear combination of the weight vector w

w

D(x)

x1

Normal Class

Training Support Vectors ai

New observation vector

Linear Classification – Inseparable Input Space

x2

Abnormal Class

- For inseparable data the SVM finds a function D(x) that best separates the two classes by:
- Maximizing the margin M and minimizing the sum of slack errors xi
- Function D(x) can be used as a classifier
- In this illustration, a new observation point that falls to the right of it is considered abnormal
- Points below and to the left are considered normal
- By minimizing the norm of wand the sum of slack errorsxiwe find the line or linear surface that best separates the two classes

x1

x1

M

x2

x2

D(x)

x1

Normal Class

Training Support Vectors

New observation vector

D(x)

Normal Observation

x1

Normal Class

Nonlinear classificationx2

- For inseparable data the SVM finds a nonlinear function D(x) that best separates the two classes by:
- Use of a kernel map k(.)
- K=F(xi)F(x)
- Feature map F(x)=[x2√2x 1]T
- The decision function D(x) requires the dot product of the feature map F using the same mathematical framework as the linear classifier
- This is called the Kernel Trick
- (example)

Training SVMs for Classification

Confidence Limit training

x2

x2

D1(x)

- Need effective way to train SVM without the presence of negative class data
- Convert outer distribution of positive class to negative
- Confidence limit training uses a defined confidence level around which a negative class is generated
- One class training takes a percentage of the positive class data and converts it to negative class
- is an optimization problem
- minimizes the volume in the decision surface VS
- does not need negative class information

VS1

x1

x1

One Class training

x2

x2

D2(x)

VS2

x1

x1

VS1 > VS2

around each centroid

Centroids computed using unsupervised clustering

One Class TrainingPerformance region

x2

- The negative class is important for SVM accuracy
- The data is portioned using Kmeans
- The negative class is computed around each cluster centroid
- The negative class is selected from the positive class data as the points that have:
- the fewest neighboors
- Denoted by D
- Computationally this is done by maximizing the sum of Euclidian distances from between all points

x1

Fitting a Sigmoid Function

x2

x2

- In this project we are interested in finding the probability that our class prediction is correct
- Modeling the miss-classification rate
- The class prediction in PHM is the prediction of normality or abnormality
- With an MLE estimate of the density function of these class probabilities we can determine the uncertainty of the prediction

D(x)

x1

x1

Hard decision

boundary

Probability

distance

MLE and SVMs

x2

- Using a semi-parametric approach a Sigmoid function S is fitted along the hard decision boundary to model class probability
- We are interested in determining the density function that best prescribes this probability
- The likelihood is computed based on the knowledge of the decision function values D(xi), in the parameter space

D(x)

x1

P(y|D(xi)) – Likelihood function

D(x)

MLE and the Sigmoid Function

- Parameters a* and b* are determined by solving a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) of y
- The minimization is a two parameter optimization problem of F, a function of a and b
- Depending on parameters a* and b* the shape of the sigmoid will change.
- It can be proven that the MLE optimization problem is convex
- Can use Newton’s method with a backtracking line search

Joint Probability Model

P ( y | xS , xR )

Final Class Probability

Projection onto Residual model

Projection onto PCA model

Classification forx

- Class prediction P(y|xS,xR) based on the joint class probabilities from:
- PCA model: p(y|xS)
- Residual model: p(y|xR)
- p(y=c|xS) - the probability that a point xS is classified as c in the PCA model
- p(y|xR) - the probability that a point is classified as c in the residual model
- P(y|xS,xR) - the final probability that a pointx is classified as c
- Anticipate better accuracy and sensitivity to onset of anomalies

Joint Probability Model

Bayes Rule

Assumption

- The joint probability model depends on the results of the SVC from both models (PCA and Residual)
- Assumption: Data on models is linearly independent
- Changes in the joint classification probability can be used as precursor to anomalies and used for prediction

+1

x

1

2

-1

D(x)

Example Non-Linear Classification- Have 4 1-D data points represented in vector x and a label vector y given by
- x=[1,2,5,6]T
- y=[-1,-1,1,-1]T
- This means that coordinates x(1), x(2) and x(4) belong to the same class I (circles) and x(3) is its own class II (squares)
- The decision function D(x) is given as the nonlinear combination of the weight vector which is expressed in terms of the lagrange multipliers
- The lagrange multipliers are computed in the quadratic optimization problem
- We are going to use a polynomial kernel of degree two because we can see that some kind of parabola will separate the classes

Example Non-Linear Classification - Construct Hessian for quadratic optimization

- Notice that in order to calculate the scalar product FTF in the feature space, we do not need to perform the mapping using the equation for F. Instead we calculate this product directly in the input space using the input data by computing the kernel of the map
- This is called the kernel trick

Example Non-Linear Classification - The Kernel Trick

- Let xbelong to the real 2-D input space
- Choose a mapping function F of degree two
- The required dot product of the map function can be expresses as:
- a dot product in the input space
- This is the kernel trick
- The Kernel trick basically says that any mapping can be expressed in terms of a dot product of the input space data to some degree
- here to the second degree

+1

x

1

2

-1

D(x)

Example Non-Linear Classification – Decision function D(x)- Compute Lagrange multipliers a through the quadratic optimization problem
- Plug into equation for D(x)
- Determine b using the class constraints:
- y=[-1,-1,+1,-1]
- b=-9
- The end result is a nonlinear (quadratic) decision function
- For x(1)=1, sign(D(x)=-4.33)<0 C1
- For x(2)=2, sign(D(x)=-1.00)<0 C1
- For x(3)=5, sign(D(x)=0.994)>0 C2
- For x(4)=6, sign(D(x)=-1.009)<0 C1
- The nonlinear classifier correctly classified the data!

Quadratic Optimization and Global solutions

- What do all these methods have in common?
- Quadratic optimization of the weight vector w
- Where H is the hessian matrix
- y is the class membership of each training point
- This type of equation is defined as a quadratic optimization problem solution to which gives:
- Lagrange multipliers a, which in turn are used in D(x)
- In Matlab “quadprog” is used to solve the quadratic optimization
- Because there can only exist one solution to the quadratic problem it
- guarantees a global solution.

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