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Separating Industry Issues From Safety Issues Managing Inter–Organisational Collaboration when Implementing a Fatigue Risk Management System (FRMS). Captain Robert D Holliday FRAeS 2 nd September 2011. Contents. Collaboration Aims Culture Trust Politics and Power Conclusion.

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captain robert d holliday fraes 2 nd september 2011

Separating Industry Issues From Safety IssuesManaging Inter–Organisational Collaboration when Implementing a Fatigue Risk Management System (FRMS)

Captain Robert D Holliday FRAeS

2nd September 2011

contents
Contents
  • Collaboration
  • Aims
  • Culture
  • Trust
  • Politics and Power
  • Conclusion
collaboration
Collaboration

An oil company manager once said of collaboration:

You may have to jump into bed with someone you don’t like…’

safety perspective
Safety Perspective

Sleep

Family

Commute

Exercise

Fit to Fly

Lifestyle

Medication

Diet

Health

union representative perspective
Union Representative Perspective

Pay

Hours

Safety

Holiday

Union member

Lifestyle

Negotiation

Agreements

Suspicion

management representative perspective
Management Representative Perspective

Productivity

Safety

Compliance

Efficiency

Employee

Operational Integrity

Power

Politics

Industrial Relations

crew scheduling perspective
Crew Scheduling Perspective

Software

Safety

Bid Satisfaction

Flight Time Limitations

Crewed Aeroplane

Standby cover

Operational continuity

Crew Establishment

Disruption management

collaboration1
Collaboration

accountability

common aims

culture

communication and language

democracy and equality

Practitioner-generated themes

power

working processes

trust

commitment and determination

Risk

compromise

resources

Types of themes in collaboration practice

Managing to Collaborate – Huxham & Vangen, 2005

crew scheduling perspective1
Crew Scheduling Perspective

Power

Aims

Collaboration

Culture

Trust

Politics

collaboration2
Collaboration

A framework for understanding aims in collaboration

Managing to Collaborate – Huxham & Vangen, 2005

managing aims
Managing Aims
  • Superordinate Goals

‘Improve Safety’

‘Big Society’

  • SMART goals

Specific, Measurable, Agreed, Realistic, Time bound

  • Goal Commitment/Rejection
managing aims1
Managing Aims

Empathy Box

managing aims2
Managing Aims
  • Integrity and Accessibility
  • Beware of ‘Goals Gone Wild’
  • Unintended consequences
  • E.g. Ford Pinto

Goals Gone Wild (Ordenez et al 2009)

levels of culture
Levels of Culture

Artifacts

Visible organisational structures and process (hard to decipher)

Espoused Beliefs and Values

Strategies, goals, philosophies (espoused justifications

Unconscious taken-for-granted beliefs, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings...

(ultimate source of values and action

Underlying Assumptions

Levels of Culture

Organizational Collaboration – E.H. Schein, 2011

managing culture
Managing Culture
  • Underlying Assumptions

‘Prescriptive rules have worked till now’

‘Crew will use this to work less’

‘Management will use this to increase productivity’

‘It’s legal’

managing trust
Managing Trust

The trust Building Loop

slide19

‘‘It is unnecessary for a prince to have all the good qualities I have enumerated, but it is very necessary to appear to have them’’Niccolo Machiavelli, 1532

managing politics and power
Managing Politics and Power
  • ‘As organisations are manifestly social entities, power and politics are ubiquitous elements in their make up. Often used synonymously, they are also inherently interwoven and as such are treated in many ways as inseparable issues.’

(Di Domenico, 2011)

managing politics and power1
Managing Politics and Power
  • Power – Making people do things they otherwise wouldn’t
  • Buy in is more sustainable
  • Power associated with the purse
  • Power is distributed in various forms
collaboration3
Collaboration

EXTREME

EXTREME

Seek enough agreement

INTERMEDIATE POSITIONS

articulate clear, common agreed aims as a first step

get on with joint task without agreeing aims first

Seek common ground

EXTREME

  • provides direction to guide joint action
  • difficult to reach agreement so action may never happen
  • immediate joint action
  • lack of direction

REFORMULATED EXTREME

articulate clear compatible aims

Tensions in managing aims in collaborative settings

Managing to Collaborate – Huxham & Vangen, 2005

top ten tips for collaborating
Top Ten tips for Collaborating

(Huxham and Vangen, 2005)

  • 1. See the collaborative advantage
  • 2. Budget more time than you think
  • 3. Remember there will be different agendas round the table
  • 4. Set small achievable goals to start with to build trust
  • 5. Communicate
  • 6. Remember each member will have different constraints that may cause tensions
top ten tips for collaborating1
Top Ten tips for Collaborating

(Huxham and Vangen, 2005)

  • 7. Try to establish that members are able to participate autonomously
  • 8. Recognise that power is important and that each member has power from a different source
  • 9. Sometime you will facilitate and sometimes direct
  • 10. Be persistent, apply high energy levels, total commitment and nurturing and the collaboration will be successful
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Perseverance
  • Energy
  • Commitment
  • Time
  • All required for a successful collaboration
references
References

References

Huxham, C., Vangen, S. (2010) “Managing to collaborate”, Oxon, Routledge.

Schein, Edgar. The Levels of Culture. Source: Organisational Culture and Leadership. 2004. Jossey-Bass.

Di Domenico, M, Vangen, S, Winchester, N, Kumar Boojihawon, D and Mordaunt, J (2011) ORGANIZATIONAL COLLABORATION Themes and issues. Oxon, Routledge,

Goal setting: A five-step approach to behaviour change Gary Latham

Goals gone wild: The systematic side effects of overprescribing goal setting Lisa Ordóñez, Maurice Schweitzer, Adam Galinsky and Max Bazerman

The Prince Niccolò Machiavelli (translated and edited by W.K. Marriott)

Understanding power in organizations Jeffrey Pfeffer

The levels of culture Edgar Schein

Lukes, S., (2005), Power:A Radical View, B325 Managing across organisational and cultural boundaries (2011), The Open University, Milton Keynes

Pinney, R., (2008), Building trusted relationships, Les50ons, B325 Managing across organisational and cultural boundaries (2011), The Open University, Milton Keynes