Wordsusedtogiveexampleorillustration • I have been to many countries. For example, I have been to Russia, Canada, Mexico, and Spain. • He often eats strange foods. For instance, he once ate cow brains. • I like to travel. Specifically, I enjoy places with old cathedrals. • I love fruit. In particular, I like bananas, pineapple, and berries. • Children should eat less junk food. For example, they should avoid eating burgers and chips. • Children should avoid eating junk food such as burgers and chips. • Food such as pizza and hamburgers arenot really junk food; they contain a lot of protein and vitamins.
Exercise 1: Fill in theblankswithforexample/such as. such as 1. When I visit Korea, I want to go to many cities____________ Seoul and Taegu. 2. Henryhas met many famous people. _____________,one time she met Jacques Chirac. 3. Juan loves rock musicians from the 1970s_______________ Jimmy Hendrix and Janis Joplin. 4. Car companies manufacture their automobiles in many different countries around the world. __________________, Toyota and Ford havemany car factories in Europe. 5. There have been many leaders in history who have tried to rule the entire world_________Julius Caesar and Alexander the Great. 6. I can play quite a few musical instruments ____________the flute, the guitar, and the piano. Forexample such as Forexample such as such as
TransitionWordstoindicate a cause/a reason As-because-since-because of….-dueto….- duetothefactthat….Because of thefactthat….Forthisreason,………. • Shedidn’tgotoworkbecause/as/sinceshewasill. • Because/As/Since he was in a hurry, he took a taxi. • The final examswerecancelleddueto/owingtotheterriblestorm. • The final examswerecancelleddueto/owingtothefactthattherewas a terriblestorm. • Because of thefactthatlanguage is constantlychanging, therules of grammarchangealso. • He had totake her son tothehospital. Forthisreason, he leftearlytoday.
Exercise 2: Fill in theblankswithbecause/because of. Because/as/since • ___________________he is eagertolearn English, he can makeconsiderableprogress. • Westoppedplayingtennis _________________ therain. • Wecouldn’tarriveuntileighto’clock _______________ thetrafficwasterrible. • He foundworking in Chinaverydifficult ______________ thelanguage problem. because of because/as/since because of
Exercise 3: Re-writethefollowingsentenceswiththegivenwords. 1. Sales droppedbecausetherewasa price war among competitors.(dueto) _______________________________________________ 2. Airfares haveincreased dramatically asoil prices has beenrising.(because of) __________________________________________________ 3. Investment declined becauseinterest ratesarehigher. (dueto) __________________________________________________ 4. Production dropped becausetherewas a labour strike. __________________________________________________ Sales droppeddue toa price war among competitors. Airfares haveincreased dramatically because ofrising oil prices. Investment declined due tohigher interest rates. Production dropped because ofthe labour strike.
TransitionWordstoindicate a result/an effect • I have long been interested in science and animals. Therefore, I have decided to study biology in college. • I have long been interested in science and animals,soI have decided to study biology in college. • The athlete was caught using drugs. Consequently, he was kicked off the team. • Rent is too expensive in Beşiktaş. As a consequence, I have decided to move to Mecidiyeköy. • Someone called in a bomb threat. As a result, school was cancelled. • The government did not prepare for the hurricane. Thus, many people suffered. • I used to waste all of my time watching TV shows that I didn't even like. For this reason, I decided to give away my TV.
Exercise 4: Connect thesentenceswiththegivenconnectors. Be carefulwiththepunctuation. 1. Thesecurityrulesareverystrict on planesnow.There was a terrorist attack last year. (so) ____________________________________________________ 2. I need to buy a new phonenow. I dropped my cell phone, and it stopped working. (forthisreason) ____________________________________________________ 3. The goalkeeperthrew the ball at the referee’s head.Hewas thrown out of the game.(As a consequence) ___________________________________________________ 4. Spring is my favorite season. It is too hot in summer. (therefore) ___________________________________________________ There was a terrorist attack last year, sothesecurityrulesareverystrict on planesnow. I dropped my cell phone, and it stopped working. Forthisreason, I need to buy a new phonenow. The goalkeeperthrew the ball at the referee’s head. As a consequence, hewas thrown out of the game. Itis too hot in summer. Therefore, springis my favorite season.
Exercise 5: Choosethecorrectsentenceconnector. 1. As / As a result it was such a beautiful day, we decided to have a picnic.2. It was his birthday because / so we decided to buy him a present.3. As a result / Since all the seats on the train were taken, we had to stand.4. The banks were closed;as a result / because we couldn’t get any money.5. I didn’t find the book very interesting,so / as I didn’t finish it.6. We couldn’t drive across the bridge as a result / because it was closed.7. She had the best qualifications as/ therefore shegot the job.8. I haven’t got much money,as / so I can’t afford a new car.
Exercise 6: Re-writethefollowingsentenceswiththegivenwords. Therewasrail strike, so we were unable to go by train. 1. We were unable to go by train because of the rail strike. (SO) __________________________________________________ 2. The director in ourofficewas very unpopular. Therefore, his resignation did not come as a surprise. (SINCE) ____________________________________________________ 3. She walked carefully asthe streets were covered in ice. (FOR THIS REASON) ___________________________________________________ 4. Since Bill had lived in Spain for six years, he spoke Spanish fluently. (AS A RESULT) ___________________________________________________ 5. Becausewe arrived late, all the best seats had been taken. (THUS) ____________________________________________________ Thedirector’sresignation did not come as a surprisesincehewas very unpopular. The streets were covered in ice. Forthisreason, she walked carefully. Bill had lived in Spain for six years. As a result, he spoke Spanish fluently. We arrived late. Thus,all the best seats had been taken.
WordsusedtoexpressPurpose • Wewenttotheconcerthallearlyin ordertofindseats. verb • Wewenttotheconcerthallearlyso as tofindseats. verb • Alsopossible: Wewenttotheconcerthallearlytofindseats. • Wewenttotheconcerthallearlyin order not tomissthebeginning of theconcert. • Wewenttotheconcerthallearlyso as not tomissthebeginning of theconcert.
Exercise 7: Usein orderto/in order not towherenecessary. in orderto • I will go to university ________________study English, not to study French. • 1. You have to dress now _________________be late for the party. • I am writing ______________congratulate you for your success. • ___________complete her registration, she has to pay the fees as soon as possible. • Read your text silently _________________disturb the others. • Revise well_____________ get good marks. in order not to in orderto Inorderto in order not to in orderto
SO THAT:We use sothatto talk aboutpurpose. • He spoke slowlysothatwecould write everything down. fullsentence • I wrote the number down sothatI wouldn't forget it.fullsentence Compare: Iwokeupearlysothat Iwouldbe abletocatchthe train. Iwokeupearlyin ordertocatch the train. IN CASE: We use in caseto talk about taking precautions, doing something because something else might happen. • I alwayskeepcandles in thehousein casethere is a powercut. • Keep some extra batteries and bottled water on handin case there is an earthquake. • I'll give you my phone number in case you need to contact me. • You should insure your bicycle in case it is stolen.
I’ve collected moneysothatI could buy a car. Exercise 8: Re-writethesentenceswiththegivenwords. 1. I’ve collected money.Iwill buy a new car.(so that) ______________________________________ 2. Many people left Turkey in 1960s.They wanted to find jobs in Germany.( in order to) ___________________________________________ 3. She attends to a course.She wants to learn chess.(to) ___________________________________________ 4. Linda turned on the lights.She wanted to see better.(so that) ______________________________________________ 4. I will come with you.I want to help you.(in order to) ___________________________________________ Many people left Turkey in 1960sin ordertofindjobs in Germany. She attends to a coursetolearnchess. Linda turned on the lightssothatshecouldseebetter. I will come with youin order tohelp you.
Transitionwordsusedtocomparethings Similarly, Likewise, + clause Inthesameway, Men mustwear a jacketand a tie in theoffice. Similarly, womenmustwear a skirtor a dress, not trousers. Erzurum wil be very cold this week. Likewise, Sivas will be, too. Similarto + noun, clause: Similartomigraines, headachesusuallyattacktheleftside of thehead. Like+ noun, clause: Likemymother, myfather is good at playingtheguitar. Unlike+noun, clause: UnlikeGermany, Italy has a highunemployment rate.
Transitionwordsusedtocontrastthings Although Eventhoughhe is rich, he is verymean. Though Shetook a longwalkeventhoughit wasrainingheavily. clausethoughclause although Despitebeingrich, he is verymean. Inspite of nounclause Despitetheheavyrain, shewentout. noun Inspite of theheavyrain, shewentout. Shewentoutin spite of theheavyrain.
Despitethefactthat……..Inspite of thefactthat……… Despite the fact that he needs money, he spends too much.In spite of the fact that clause clause Although Even though However, Nevertheless, + CLAUSE Nonetheless, Yet, She studied hard. However, she couldn’t pass the exam. She studied hard; however, she couldn’t pass the exam. My uncle is 70 years old. Nonetheless, he continues to work as a lawyer. She doesn’t have any talent in acting, yet she insists on having a part. She doesn’t have any talent in acting. Yet, she insists on having a part.
………while…….. /…….whereas…….. Tom is veryconfidentwhileKathy is shyandquiet. He likes music ,whereas his roommate likes dancing. The doctor did the surgery,whereas the nurse assisted him. Some couples argue all the time,whereas the others get on quite well. She went to medical school,whereas her friend went to law school. ExtraInfo: He will prepare breakfast while you’re having a shower.(time conjunction) ………… , but..……………. Shedoesn’thaveanytalent in acting, butsheinsists on having a part. Shedoesn’thaveanytalent in acting, yetsheinsists on having a part.
On theotherhand,……… George is an optimist. On theotherhand, Bill is a pessimist. Incontrast, + Clause : George is an optimist. Incontrast, Bill is a pessimist. Extrovertsprefercrowds. Incontrast, introvertsprefersolitude. Incontrastto……+ noun, clause Incontrasttoextroverts, introvertsprefersolitude. nounclause As opposedto ….+ noun, clause: Asopposedtoextroverts, introvertsprefersolitude. !!!On thecontrary, …clause… Sarah isn’tlazy. On thecontrary, sheworksextremely hard. Manypeoplethinkthat New Orleans is a bigcity. On thecontrary, it has quite a smallpopulation.
Exercise 9: Choosethebestoption. 1. _____________he was the best candidate, he couldn’twin the elections. a. despite b. in spite of c. although d. yet 2. Bristol has two football stadiums, __________ Bathhas a rugby stadium. a. thus b. despite c. whereas d. in contrastto 3. The England team won the match ___________ the other team had very good players. a. since b. as c. eventhough d. until 4. In classroom 101, we have a view of the road. ______________, in classroom 105, we have a view of the garden. a. While b. On theotherhand c. despited. but
Exercise 10: Fill in theblankswitheventhough/whereas/despite Eventhough despite 1. ________________ she tried really hard, she lost the race. 2. Clare did the work ______________being ill. 3. My wife likes to travel abroad,____________ I prefer to stay at home for my vacations. 4. Shegotthejob ________________thefactthatshe had verylittleexperience. 5. He runs fast ____________his old age. 6. My sister’shandwriting is soneat, ___________mine is a total mess. 7. _______________ weinformedthestudentsaboutthedangers of smoking, theycontinuetosmoke. 8. The children slept deeply _____________the noise. CompiledbyWritingCoordination/2014 whereas despite despite whereas Eventhough despite