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The Congo Revision. Imperialism. A policy or belief in the creation of an empire by acquiring colonies B y military campaigns By economic domination By cultural domination. New Imperialism. Stanley negotiated 450 treaties during exploration of the Congo 1879-84

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imperialism
Imperialism
  • A policy or belief in the creation of an empire by acquiring colonies
  • By military campaigns
  • By economic domination
  • By cultural domination
new imperialism
New Imperialism
  • Stanley negotiated 450 treaties during exploration of the Congo 1879-84
  • Gave Leopold trading and land rights
  • The use of trade to win control/influence over an undeveloped region
the scramble for africa
The scramble for Africa
  • Late 19th C - most of the world divided between European imperial powers
  • The only uncolonised region – unexplored Africa
  • 1884-85 Berlin Conference –
  • Great Power rivalry
berlin act 1885
Berlin Act 1885
  • Commerce – free trade
  • Christianity – missionaries protected
  • Civilization – end slavery
  • Aim – avoid conflict between European powers
  • Granted Leopold right to Central Africa – one million square kilometers
  • He created the Congo Free State
so what gave belgium power
So what gave Belgium power?
  • The Force Publique– a native army of less 16,000 natives, around 400 Belgian officers
  • Superior weapons
  • Congolese tribes disunited
  • Kidnapping and hostage taking
  • Greed – bribed some chiefs
what motivated king leopold
What motivated King Leopold?
  • Profits from rubber
  • Racial superiority – “white man’s burden”
  • 1890s – new technology – the pneumatic tyre (a Scotsman, Dunlop, invented the rubber tyre for his son’s bicycle)
  • Labor needed to harvest wild rubber plants in the Congo
  • Congolese are “taxed” – with labor
what was the impact on the congo
What was the impact on the Congo?
  • Force Publiqueterrorised Congolese tribes
  • Rebellion – many refuse to harvest rubber vine forests
  • Hostages taken to force men to work
  • Rebels killed or mutilated
short term consequences
Short Term Consequences
  • E D Morel’s campaign (CRA) damages King Leopold’s international reputation
  • Casement Report provides credible and damning support for Congo Reform Association claims
  • 1908 Leopold forced by public pressure to sell Congo to Belgian government
long term consequences
Long term consequences
  • Loss of local religions and customs
  • Schools and churches spread Christianity and European idea
  • Most of the population speak French
  • The borders devised by the Berlin Conference paid little heed to tribal borders
  • Few industries – just exploitation of natural resources
  • Congo is a mix of tribes competing for resources – one reason for civil war in 1990s
comparison with china
Comparison with China
  • Europeans had superior weaponry
  • Berlin Conference and Treaty of Tianjin gave protection for missionaries
  • Co-operation between European powers (Berlin Conference, Opium Wars, Boxer Rebellion)
  • Economic motivation – free trade, access to new raw materials, role of opium/rubber
  • Cultural destruction – threats to local religion and identity
contrast with japan
Contrast with Japan
  • Civil war in both countries – but the Japanese were ethnically homogeneous and united under one Emperor
  • Congo – many tribes and chiefs. No unified army
  • Japanese controlled changes to their society – revolution from above
  • Belgians controlled change in Congo