carpiopulmonary resuscitation cpr n.
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LESSON 5. CARPIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR). 5- 1. Basic Life Support (BLS). First aid given if victim’s breathing or heart stops Often needed for victims of: Heart attack Drowning Choking Other injuries/conditions. Overview of BLS. CPR = chest compressions + rescue breaths

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basic life support bls
Basic Life Support (BLS)
  • First aid given if victim’s breathing or heart stops
  • Often needed for victims of:
    • Heart attack
    • Drowning
    • Choking
    • Other injuries/conditions
overview of bls
Overview of BLS
  • CPR = chest compressions + rescue breaths
  • Gets oxygen into lungs and oxygenated blood to vital organs
overview of bls continued
Overview of BLS continued
  • Choking care
    • Includes chest compressions
    • Expels an obstructing object from airway
overview of bls continued1
Overview of BLS continued
  • Use of an automated external defibrillator (AED)
    • Restores a more normal heart rhythm
bls age differences
BLS Age Differences

Infant = birth to 1 year

Child = age 1 to the onset of puberty (for CPR and choking care); age 1 to 8 for AED

Adult = past the age of puberty (or over age 8 for AED)

respiratory emergencies
Respiratory Emergencies
  • Any illness or injury resulting in stopped breathing or inadequate breathing
  • Two types
    • Respiratory arrest
    • Respiratory distress
respiratory emergencies examples
Respiratory Emergencies: Examples
  • Obstructed airway
  • Penetrating injury to chest
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning
  • Heart problem reducing tissue oxygen
  • Electrical shock disrupting breathing or heartbeat
  • Drug overdose or poisoning
respiratory arrest and respiratory distress
Respiratory Arrest and Respiratory Distress
  • Respiratory arrest
    • Breathing has completely stopped
  • Respiratory distress
    • Breathing is difficult and may become ineffective
heart attack acute myocardial infarction ami
Heart Attack – Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)
  • Sudden reduced blood flow to heart muscle
  • Medical emergency that often leads to cardiac arrest
  • Can occur at any age
  • Usually results from atherosclerosis
facts about heart attack
Facts About Heart Attack
  • Over 1,255,000 heart attacks occur a year in the United States, resulting in over 132,000 deaths
  • Many could have been saved by first aid and medical treatment
  • More likely in those with family history
  • 1/5 of victims do not have chest pain
  • Victims typically deny they are having a heart attack
symptoms of heart attack
Symptoms of Heart Attack
  • Can vary from vague chest discomfort to crushing pain with or without other symptoms
  • May have no signs and symptoms before suddenly collapsing
  • May have milder symptoms that come and go before heart attack occurs
symptoms of heart attack continued
Symptoms of Heart Attack continued
  • In women chest pain or discomfort most common symptom
    • Also more likely to have shortness of breath, jaw or back pain, indigestion, nausea and vomiting
symptoms of heart attack continued1
Symptoms of Heart Attack continued
  • Consider possibility of heart attack with wide range of symptoms
    • Don’t expect a clearly defined situation
  • Act quickly because deaths usually occur with an hour or two of symptoms
aspirin and heart attack
Aspirin and Heart Attack
  • Many patients at risk for cardiovascular disease advised to take one low-dose aspirin daily unless allergic or experience side effects
  • For victims who do not need to avoid aspirin, chewing one uncoated adult aspirin or two low-dose baby aspirin is now recommended when experiencing heart attack symptoms
nitroglycerin for heart attack
Nitroglycerin for Heart Attack
  • Increases blood flow by dilating arteries
  • Often prescribed for angina
    • Type of chest pain caused by narrowed coronary arteries
  • Comes in tablets, sprays and patches
nitroglycerin for heart attack continued
Nitroglycerin for Heart Attack continued
  • Can assist victim with prescribed nitroglycerine
    • Follow victim’s instructions
    • Do not attempt to give if victim unresponsive
first aid for heart attack
First Aid for Heart Attack
  • Call 9-1-1 immediately.
  • Help victim into comfortable position. Loosen any tight clothing.
  • Ask victim about medications.
  • Encourage the victim to chew one uncoated adult or two low-dose baby aspirin (unless allergic).
  • Stay with victim. Be reassuring.
call first call fast
Call First/Call Fast

Call First (before starting CPR):

  • Any unresponsive adult who is not breathing normally

Call Fast (after giving about two minutes of CPR):

  • Any infant or child who is unresponsive and not breathing normally
use of cpr for unresponsiveness and lack of normal breathing caused by
Heart attack




Allergic reaction

Diabetic emergency

Prolonged seizures

Drug overdose

Electric shock

Certain injuries

Use of CPR for unresponsiveness and lack of normal breathing caused by:
cpr saves lives
CPR Saves Lives
  • CPR and defibrillation within 3-5 minutes can save over 50% of cardiac arrest victims
  • CPR followed by AED saves thousands of lives each year
  • In most cases CPR helps keep victim alive until EMS or AED arrives
cpr technique
CPR Technique

If unresponsive and not breathing start CPR with chest compressions:

  • Find correct hand position
  • Compress chest hard and fast at rate of at least 100 compressions/minute
  • Alternate 30 compressions and 2 rescue breaths
  • Give each breath over one second
general technique rescue breaths
General Technique: Rescue Breaths
  • Position victim on back
  • Open airway with head tilt–chin lift
  • Use a barrier device
  • Give eachbreath over about one second
  • Watch victim’s chest rise
general technique rescue breaths continued
General Technique: Rescue Breaths continued
  • Do not blow harder than needed to make chest rise
  • After each breath let air escape and chest fall
  • Blowing in too forcefully or for too long may cause vomiting
mouth to barrier
Mouth to Barrier
  • Barrier device is always recommended
  • Position pocket mask or face shield on victim’s face
  • Make sure it is sealed to victim’s face
    • With face shield, pinch victim’s nose closed when giving breaths
potential problem vomiting
Potential Problem: Vomiting
  • To prevent air from entering stomach and causing vomiting
    • Open airway before giving breaths
    • Watch chest rise as you give breaths
    • Blow slowly and steadily
    • Stop each breath when chest rises
    • Let chest fall after each breath
assess the victim
Assess the Victim

1 Determine that victim is unresponsive and not breathing normally

Have someone call 9-1-1, or call yourself if alone, and get an AED

Begin CPR


4 Open airway

Give two rescue breaths, each lasting one second

  • If first breath does not go in, reposition head and try again
  • If second breath still does not go in, give care for choking

5 Continue cycles of 30 compression and two breaths

6 Continue CPR until:

  • Victim wakes up
  • AED brought to scene and ready to use
  • Professional help arrives to take over
  • Scene becomes dangerous
  • You become too exhausted

7 If victim starts breathing normally but is unresponsive, put in recovery position and monitor breathing

When AED arrives, start AED sequence

compression only cpr
Compression-Only CPR
  • If you cannot or will not give rescue breaths, still give chest compressions