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A review of studies on masculinities in Vietnam. . Vu Hong Phong, Department of Sociology, University of Essex. METHODS Identifying key terms Vietnam, men, masculinity, masculinities, gender, women, and their possible combinations Searching for published articles

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a review of studies on masculinities in vietnam
A review of studies on masculinities in Vietnam

Vu Hong Phong, Department of Sociology, University of Essex

METHODS

  • Identifying key terms

Vietnam, men, masculinity, masculinities, gender, women, and their possible combinations

  • Searching for published articles

Paper-based articles in library and electronic articles in Web of Science, EBSCOhost, JSTOR, etc.

  • Looking for ‘types’ of men and ‘types’ of analyses in the literature

RESULTS

Negative masculinities

  • The Kinh man (who accounts for 90% of a population of 86 millions); Young man; Living in cities or flat rural areas
  • The unfaithful man and HIV/AIDS
  • The risky/abnormal/gay man and HIV/AIDS
  • The violent man

RESULTS

BACKGROUND

Since the middle of 1980s, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam has allowed the development of a market oriented economy, characterized by a fast growth of private sector in many areas, such as healthcare, education, entertainment, work. Many studies have focused on impacts of social changes on gender relations and gender identity.

  • ‘Confucianism and Social changes’ analysis
    • Stress of the importance family lineage, sons
    • Social changes, more women than men lose their jobs
    • Women are pushed back to family, where Confucianism force them to obey men, they are vulnerable to domestic violence
    • Used to explain the ‘Violent Man’
  • ‘Exposure to globalization’ analysis
    • Increasing exposure to ‘western’s culture and value through easy access to TV, movies, internet
    • Plenty of choice of being a man are available
    • Used to explain the ‘Gay Man’
  • ‘Commercialization of masculinity’ analysis
    • Increasing number of marketing techniques that use women’s sexuality to attract male clients
    • Social attitudes toward commercial sex become more liberal
    • Used to explain ‘The Unfaithful Man’
    • Wife = ‘Rice’, Sweetheart/Sex worker= Noodles

“Rice is essential but tiresome !

You should get some noodles!’

(Phinney 2008)

OBJECTIVE

  • To describe images of Vietnamese masculinities in contemporary social science literature
  • To describe different types of arguments/analyses on Vietnamese masculinities employed by researchers/authors

Different choices

of being a person

Forces that make one

choice more acceptable

than others

Neglected masculinities

  • Men of ethnic minorities, old men, men living in mountainous areas
  • Good man (non-risky, non-violent, faithful)
  • Masculinities as propagandized by the State

Absent Propagandized Masculinities

‘Soft’ masculinity: young men making up !

CONCLUSIONS

  • Heavily influenced by public health, focused mainly on negative aspects of masculinities, heavily constructed by foreigners!
  • Health need of men not classified as ‘risky’ is forgotten
  • Public health needs ‘the risky man’ to call for support
  • Images of Vietnamese men in English literature are biased unless studies written by Vietnamese scholars in Vietnamese are included in the analysis

‘Hard’ masculinity!

1966 1976 2006

Masculinity at War:

‘Vietnamese Naval Forces

are determined

to beat American

invaders!’

A heroic laborer

Masculinity after war:

hardworking,

devoting

Entrepreneur

Today’s masculinity:

economic success,

creative

For additional information please contact:

Vu Hong Phong

Room 6.346, Department of Sociology

University of Essex

E-mail address: [email protected]

‘Gay’: a new choice of being

man !

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