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History of Psychology. Chapter 13 Psychoanalysis: The Beginnings. I. The Place of Psychoanalysis in the History of Psychology. A. 1895 1 . formal beginning of psychoanalysis 2. Wundt: age 63 3. Titchener: age 28 4. functionalism: just beginning to flourish 5. Watson: age 17

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history of psychology

History of Psychology

Chapter 13

Psychoanalysis: The Beginnings

i the place of psychoanalysis in the history of psychology
I. The Place of Psychoanalysis in the History of Psychology
  • A. 1895
    • 1. formal beginning of psychoanalysis
    • 2. Wundt: age 63
    • 3. Titchener: age 28
    • 4. functionalism: just beginning to flourish
    • 5. Watson: age 17
    • 6. Wertheimer: age 15
the place of psychoanalysis in the history of psychology
The Place of Psychoanalysis in the History of Psychology
  • B. 1939
    • 1. Freud’s death
    • 2. Wundtian psychology, structuralism, and functionalism were history
    • 3. Gestalt psychology: in the process of transplantation
    • 4. behaviorism was dominant
the place of psychoanalysis in the history of psychology4
The Place of Psychoanalysis in the History of Psychology
  • C. Psychoanalysis
    • 1. not a school of thought directly comparable to the others
    • 2. subject matter is abnormal behavior
    • 3. primary method is clinical observation
    • 4. deals with the unconscious
ii sigmund freud 1856 1939 the development of psychoanalysis
A. Background

1. born in Freiberg, Moravia (Pribor, Czech Republic), and then moved to Vienna.

2. Father: strict and authoritarian

Mother: protective and loving

3. Personality: self-confidence, ambition, desire for achievement

II. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): The Development of Psychoanalysis
sigmund freud 1856 1939
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • 4. Darwin’s theory: awakened his interest in the scientific approach
  • 5. 1873: began study of medicine at U. of Vienna
    • a. 8 years to get his degree
    • b. initially concentrated on biology
    • c. moved to physiology: the spinal cord of the fish
sigmund freud 1856 19397
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • 6. cocaine
    • a. used cocaine until at least his middle age
    • b. 1884: paper on cocaine’s beneficial uses published
  • 7. 1881: MD degree, began practice as a clinical neurologist
sigmund freud 1856 19398
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • B. The case of Anna O.
    • 1. Josef Breuer (1842-1935)
      • Helped Freud. Breuer was a father-figure to Freud.
      • Worked together
    • 2. Anna O.
      • a. 21 years old
      • b. wide range of hysterical symptoms
      • c. symptoms first manifested while nursing her dying father
sigmund freud 1856 19399
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • d. Breuer began with hypnosis
    • 1) Anna referred to their conversation as "chimney sweeping" and "the talking cure“
    • 2) recalled disturbing experiences under hypnosis
    • 3) reliving the experiences under hypnosis reduced the symptoms
  • e. positive transference
  • f. Anna O. not cured by Breuer
  • g. case introduced Freud to the method of catharsis
sigmund freud 1856 193910
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • C. Sex and free association
    • 1. 1885: Freud received a grant to study with Charcot
      • a. trained in hypnosis to treat hysteria
      • b. Charcot alerted Freud to the role of sex in hysteria
    • 2. Freud became dissatisfied with hypnosis
      • a. a long-term cure not effected
      • b. patients vary in ability to be hypnotized
sigmund freud 1856 193911
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
    • c. retained catharsis as a treatment method
    • d. developed the method of free association
  • 3. Freud’s system
    • a. goal: bring repressed memories into conscious awareness
    • b. repressed memories: the source of abnormal behavior
sigmund freud 1856 193912
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • 4. free association material
    • a. the experiences recalled are predetermined
    • b. the nature of the conflict forces the material out
    • c. its roots were in early childhood
    • d. much of it concerned sexual matters
sigmund freud 1856 193913
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • D. The break with Breuer
    • 1. 1895: Studies on Hysteria(Breuer and Freud)
      • a. the formal beginning of psychoanalysis
      • b. the book was praised throughout Europe
    • 2. the conflicts
      • a. Freud’s contention that sex sole cause of neurosis
      • b. Breuer felt Freud had insufficient evidence
    • 3. Breuer concerned with Freud’s dogmatic attitudes
sigmund freud 1856 193914
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • E. The childhood seduction controversy
    • 1. Freud believed a normal sex life precludes neuroses
    • 2. 1896: posited that childhood seduction traumas caused adult neurotic behavior
    • 3. the paper was received with skepticism
sigmund freud 1856 193915
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • 4. 1897: Freud reversed his position
    • a. the seduction scenes were fantasies
    • b. patients believed they were real experiences
    • c. sex remained the root of the problem
  • 5. 1984: Masson’s book
sigmund freud 1856 193916
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • 6. contemporary data on the incidence and prevalence of child sexual abuse
  • 7. whether Freud deliberately suppressed the truth is undetermined
  • 8. 1930s: Ferenczi determined there were real acts of sexual abuse
  • 9. Freud led the opposition to Ferenczi
sigmund freud 1856 193917
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • F. Self-analysis and the interpretation of dreams
    • 1. Freud
      • a. held a negative attitude toward sex
      • b. experienced sexual difficulties
    • 2. 1897:
      • a. Freud gave up sex
      • b. he began his 2-year self-analysis of his own neurotic symptoms
sigmund freud 1856 193918
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • 5. He used method of dream analysis
    • a. He believed that everything has a cause
    • b. He conducted a personal dream analysis. He wrote down the dream stories and then free associated to the material
sigmund freud 1856 193919
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • 6. 1900: The Interpretation of Dreams
    • a. analyzing his own neurotic episodes and childhood experiences
    • b. outlined the Oedipus complex
  • 7. adopted dream analysis as standard technique
sigmund freud 1856 193920
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • G. Recognition--
    • 1. 1901: The Psychopathology of Everyday Life
      • a. Freudian slips: An act of forgetting or a lapse in speech that reflects unconscious motives or anxieties
    • 2. 1902: began weekly discussion group with students
      • a. included Jung and Adler
      • b. Freud tolerated no disagreement about the role of sexuality
sigmund freud 1856 193921
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • 3. 1905: Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality
  • 4. 1909:Clark U. lectures: honorary doctorate in psychology
    • a. 1909/1910: publication of the Clark lectures in the American Journal of Psychology
    • b. Americana accept idea of unconscious mind
sigmund freud 1856 193922
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • H. Freud’s final years
    • 1. 1923: diagnosis of cancer, followed by 33 surgeries in 16 years
    • 2. 1933: public burning of Freud’s books by the Nazis
    • 3. 1934: Nazi destroyed psychoanalysis in Germany
    • 4. 1938:
      • a. Anna Freud arrested and detained by the Nazis
      • b. move to Paris, then London
    • 5. 1939: his doctor administered an overdose of morphine over 1 24-hour period
iii psychoanalysis as a method of treatment
III. Psychoanalysis as a Method of Treatment
  • A. Resistances
    • A blockage to disclose painful memories during a free-association session
  • B. Repression
    • The process of baring unacceptable ideas. Memories, or desires from conscious awareness, leaving them to operate in the unconscious mind
iv psychoanalysis as a method of treatment
IV. Psychoanalysis as a Method of Treatment
  • C. Transference
    • The process by which a patient responds to the therapist as if the therapists were a significant person (such as a parent) in the patient’s life
  • D. Dream analysis
    • 1. A psychotherapeutic technique involving interpreting dreams to uncover unconscious conflicts
    • 2. dreams represent disguised satisfaction of repressed desires
psychoanalysis as a method of treatment
Psychoanalysis as a Method of Treatment
  • 3. The essence of a dream is the fulfillment of one’s wishes
  • 4. Patients describe dream, they express theirforbidden desires (latent dream content) in symbolic form.
  • 5. not all dreams are caused by emotional conflicts
psychoanalysis as a method of treatment26
Psychoanalysis as a Method of Treatment
  • E. No passion for helping
    • 1. little personal interest in his system's potential therapeutic value
    • 2. goal: the explanation of the dynamics of human behavior
    • 3. viewed the techniques of association and dream analysis as research tools for data collection
    • 4. his passion was the research
v freud s method of research
V. Freud’s Method of Research
  • A. Freud’s position
    • 1. little faith in the experimental approach
    • 2. believed his work was scientific
    • 3. believed his cases and self-analysis provided ample support
freud s method of research
Freud’s Method of Research
  • B. The evidence
    • 1. formulated, revised, and extended
    • 2. with Freud as the sole interpreter
    • 3. guided by his own critical abilities
    • 4. insisted only psychoanalysts could judge his work’s scientific worth
    • 5. rarely responded to his critics
vi psychoanalysis as a system of personality
VI. Psychoanalysis as a System of Personality
  • A. Instincts
    • 1. Mental representations of internal stimuli (such as hunger) that motivate personality and behavior
psychoanalysis as a system of personality
Psychoanalysis as a System of Personality
  • 2. the life instincts
    • a. self-preservation and survival of the species
    • b. manifested in libido
      • Libido: the psychic energy that drives a person toward pleasurable thoughts and behaviors
  • 3. the death instinct
    • a. a destructive force
    • b. can be directed inward (suicide) or outward (aggressive)
    • c. only when a death became a personal concern
psychoanalysis as a system of personality31
Psychoanalysis as a System of Personality
  • B. Conscious and unconscious aspects of personality
    • 1. conscious
      • a. small and insignificant
      • b. a superficial aspects of the total personality
    • 2. Unconscious
      • a. vast and powerful
      • b. contains the instincts
psychoanalysis as a system of personality32
Psychoanalysis as a System of Personality
  • 3. Later, Freud replaced the conscious/unconscious distinction with the concept of id, ego, and superego.
  • id (Es)
    • a. corresponds to earlier unconscious
    • b. the most primitive and least accessible part of personality
    • c. includes sexual and aggressive instincts
    • d. followed pleasure principle
      • 1) reduces tension
      • 2) methods: seeks pleasure and avoids pain
psychoanalysis as a system of personality33
Psychoanalysis as a System of Personality
  • 4. ego (Ich)
    • a. The rational aspect of personality responsibility for controlling the instinct
    • b. is aware of reality and regulates id
    • c. followed the reality principle
      • Holding off the id’s pleasure-seeking demands until a appropriate object can be found to satisfy the need and reduce the tension
psychoanalysis as a system of personality34
Psychoanalysis as a System of Personality
  • 5. superego (Uber-Ich)
    • a. the moral aspect of personality derived from internalizing parental and societal values and standards.
    • b. represent morality
    • c. behavior is determined by self-control, postpone id satisfaction to more appropriate times and spaces or inhibit id completely
psychoanalysis as a system of personality35
Psychoanalysis as a System of Personality
  • C. Anxiety
    • 1. indicates ego is stressed or threatened
    • 2. three types
      • a. objective: fear of actual dangers
      • b. neurotic: fear of punishment
      • c. moral: fear of one’s conscience
psychoanalysis as a system of personality36
Psychoanalysis as a System of Personality
  • D. Psychosexual stages of personality development
    • 1. one of the first to emphasize the importance of child development
    • 2. personality pattern almost complete by age 5
psychoanalysis as a system of personality37
Psychoanalysis as a System of Personality
  • 3. psychosexual stages: marked by autoeroticism
    • a. oral: sensual satisfaction, oral personality
    • b. anal: toilet training: dirty/neat, clean
    • c. phallic: attitudes toward the opposite sex develop
    • d. latency
vii relations between psychoanalysis and psychology
VII. Relations Between Psychoanalysis and Psychology
  • A. Psychoanalysis outside the mainstream
    • 1. 1924: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
      • a. complaints about the number of papers on the unconscious
      • b. at least 20 years: few articles on psychoanalysis accepted for publication
relations between psychoanalysis and psychology
Relations Between Psychoanalysis and Psychology
  • B. Criticisms by academic psychologists
    • Psychoanalysis was a product of the undeveloped German mind
  • C. Psychology textbooks
    • 1. early 1920s books included some of Freud’s ideas
    • 2. as a whole, psychoanalysis was ignored
relations between psychoanalysis and psychology40
Relations Between Psychoanalysis and Psychology
  • D. 1930s and 1940s psychoanalysis
    • 1. popular with the general public
    • 2. a serious competitor of experimental psychology
relations between psychoanalysis and psychology41
Relations Between Psychoanalysis and Psychology
  • E. The academics’ response
    • 1. experimental tests of concepts of psychoanalysis
      • a. psychoanalysis was inferior to a psychology based on experimentation
      • b. academic psychology could be relevant to the public interest because it was studying the same things as the psychoanalysts
relations between psychoanalysis and psychology42
Relations Between Psychoanalysis and Psychology
  • 2. 1950s and 1960s
    • a. translation of psychoanalytic concepts into behavioristic terms
      • E.g., emotions habits; neurotic behavior the result of faulty conditioning.
    • b. psychology incorporated many of Freud’s concepts
      • e.g., unconsciousness, childhood experiences, defense mechanism
ix criticisms of psychoanalysis
IX. Criticisms of Psychoanalysis
  • A. In general
    • 1. Freud’s methods of data collection
      • a. unsystematic and uncontrolled
      • b. data consisted of what Freud recollected
      • c. Freud may have reinterpreted patients’ words
criticisms of psychoanalysis
Criticisms of Psychoanalysis
  • d. Freud may have recalled and recorded primarily the material consistent with his theses
  • e. there exist discrepancies between Freud’s notes and the published case histories
  • f. Freud destroyed most of his data (patient files)
criticisms of psychoanalysis45
Criticisms of Psychoanalysis
  • g. just 6 case histories were published and none provides compelling support
  • h. undisclosed method for deriving inferences and generalizations
  • i. data not amenable to quantification or statistical analysis
criticisms of psychoanalysis46
Criticisms of Psychoanalysis
  • 2. Freud often contradicted himself
  • 3. Freud’s definitions of key concepts unclear
  • 4. Freud’s views on women
    • Women have poorly developed superego and inferiority feelings about their body
criticisms of psychoanalysis47
Criticisms of Psychoanalysis
  • 5. the emphasis on biological forces, especially sex, as the determinant of personality
    • a. the denial of free will
    • b. the focus on past behavior and exclusion of one’s hopes and goals
  • 6. the theory is based on neurotics, not on normals
criticisms of psychoanalysis48
Criticisms of Psychoanalysis
  • B. The scientific validation of psychoanalytic concepts
    • 1. an analysis of about 2000 studies from several disciplines support
      • a. some characteristics of oral and anal personality types
      • b. the notion that dreams reflect emotional concerns
      • c. certain aspects of the Oedipus complex in boys
criticisms of psychoanalysis49
Criticisms of Psychoanalysis
  • 2. the analysis did not support
    • a. that dreams satisfy symbolically repressed desires and wishes
    • b. that fear is the motive for boys’ resolution of the Oedipus complexes
    • c. several ideas about women (women have an inferior conception of their bodies, less severe superego standards than men
criticisms of psychoanalysis50
Criticisms of Psychoanalysis
  • 3. later research
    • a. supports notion that unconscious processesinfluence thoughts and behavior
    • b. does not support that personality is set by age 5.
      • Nowpersonality continues to develop over time and can change dramatically after childhood.
    • c. indicates Freud’s ideas about instincts are not a useful model of human motivation
x contributions of psychoanalysis
X. Contributions of Psychoanalysis
  • 1. The experimental method is not the sole method for discovery
  • 2. A strong impact on American academic psychology and popular culture