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Wireless Mesh Network. 指導教授:吳和庭教授、柯開維教授 報告:江昀庭 Source reference: Akyildiz , I.F.  and Xudong Wang “ A survey on wireless mesh networks ” IEEE Communications Magazine, Sep., 2005, p23-30. Overview. Introduction Network Architecture Critical Design Factors

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Wireless Mesh Network


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    1. Wireless Mesh Network 指導教授:吳和庭教授、柯開維教授 報告:江昀庭 Source reference: Akyildiz, I.F. and Xudong Wang “A survey on wireless mesh networks” IEEE Communications Magazine, Sep., 2005, p23-30.

    2. Overview • Introduction • Network Architecture • Critical Design Factors • Advances and Research Challenges • Network Capacity • Layered Communication Protocols • Network Management • Security • Cross-Layer Design • Conclusion

    3. Overview • Introduction • Network Architecture • Critical Design Factors • Advances and Research Challenges • Network Capacity • Layered Communication Protocols • Network Management • Security • Cross-Layer Design • Conclusion

    4. Introduction • Wireless Mesh Network(WMNs) • WMNs are comprised of two types of nodes: • mesh routers • mesh clients • Wireless can access without NICs by connecting to wireless mesh router • WMNs will be always-on-line anywhere, anytime • WMNs can use IEEE802.11 IEEE802.15 IEEE802.16

    5. Overview • Introduction • Network Architecture • Critical Design Factors • Advances and Research Challenges • Network Capacity • Layered Communication Protocols • Network Management • Security • Cross-Layer Design • Conclusion

    6. Network Architecture • Client meshing provides peer-to-peer networks among client devices. • The mesh routers form a mesh of self-configuring, self-healing links among themselves.

    7. Network Architecture • Hybrid WMNs • WMNs are multi-hop wireless networks. • Mesh clients can access the network through mesh routers as well as directly meshing with other mesh clients • Routing capabilities of clients provide improved connectivity and coverage inside WMNs.//! • WMNs support ad hoc networking, and have the capability of self-forming, self-healing, and self-organization.

    8. Overview • Introduction • Network Architecture • Critical Design Factors • Advances and Research Challenges • Network Capacity • Layered Communication Protocols • Network Management • Security • Cross-Layer Design • Conclusion

    9. Critical Design Factors • Radio Techniques • Scalability • Mesh Connectivity • Broadband and QoS • Security • Ease of Use • Compatibility and Inter-operability

    10. Radio Techniques • Directional and smart antennas, multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems, and multi-radio/multi-channel systems. • To further improve the performance of a wireless radio, reconfigurable radios, frequency agile/cognitive radios, and even software radios, have been used for wireless communication.

    11. Scalability • Mesh = high scalability • All protocols from the MAC layer to the application layer need to be scalable

    12. Mesh Connectivity • To ensure reliable mesh connectivity, network self-organization and topology control algorithms are needed. • Topology-aware MAC and routing protocols can significantly improve the performance of WMNs Broadband and QoS • Most applications of WMNs are broadband services with heterogeneous QoS requirements

    13. Security • It’s a problem and one of the future work in this paper because most of the security solutions for ad hoc networks are still not mature enough to be implemented practically. Ease of Use • Network management tools need to be developed to efficiently maintain the operation, monitor the performance, and configure the parameters of WMNs.

    14. Overview • Introduction • Network Architecture • Critical Design Factors • Advances and Research Challenges • Network Capacity • Layered Communication Protocols • Network Management • Security • Cross-Layer Design • Conclusion

    15. Network Capacity • A node should only communicate with nearby nodes(cost) • Throughput capacity can be increased by deploying relaying nodes. • Nodes need to be grouped into clusters.

    16. Overview • Introduction • Network Architecture • Critical Design Factors • Advances and Research Challenges • Network Capacity • Layered Communication Protocols • Network Management • Security • Cross-Layer Design • Conclusion

    17. Physical layer • Advanced Physical-Layer Techniques • Orthogonal frequency multiple access (OFDM) • Ultra-wide band (UWB) techniques

    18. Mac layer • MAC for WMNs is concerned with more than one-hop communication. • MAC is distributed, needs to be collaborative, and works for multipoint-to-multipoint communication. • Network self-organization is needed for better collaboration between neighboring nodes and nodes in multi-hop distances. • Mobility is low but still affects the performance of MAC. • A MAC protocol for WMNs can be designed to work on a single channel or multiple channels simultaneously.

    19. Routing layer • Many existing routing protocols use minimum hop-count as a performance metric to select the routing path. • Scalability. Setting up or maintaining a routing path in a very large wireless network may take a long time. Thus, it is critical to have a scalable routing protocol in WMNs. • Robustness. To avoid service disruption, WMNs must be robust to link failures or congestion. Routing protocols also need to perform load balancing. • Efficient Routing with Mesh Infrastructure

    20. Transport layer TCP variants improve the performance of the classical TCPs by tackling the following problems. • Non-Congestion Packet Losses. • Unknown Link Failure. • Network Asymmetry • Large RTT Variations

    21. Application Layer Numerous applications supported by WMNs can be categorized into several classes. • Internet Access • Distributed Information Storage and Sharing

    22. Overview • Introduction • Network Architecture • Critical Design Factors • Advances and Research Challenges • Network Capacity • Layered Communication Protocols • Network Management • Security • Cross-Layer Design • Conclusion

    23. Network Management • Mobility Management • Power Management • Network Monitoring

    24. Overview • Introduction • Network Architecture • Critical Design Factors • Advances and Research Challenges • Network Capacity • Layered Communication Protocols • Network Management • Security • Cross-Layer Design • Conclusion

    25. Security • Two more strategies need to be considered: • Embedding security mechanisms into network protocols such as secure routing MAC protocols • Developing security monitoring and response systems to detect attacks.

    26. Overview • Introduction • Network Architecture • Critical Design Factors • Advances and Research Challenges • Network Capacity • Layered Communication Protocols • Network Management • Security • Cross-Layer Design • Conclusion

    27. Cross-Layer Design • Cross-layer design can be performed in two ways. • The first approach is to improve the performance of a protocol layer by taking into account parameters in other protocol layers. Typically, parameters in the lower protocol layers are reported to higher layers. • The second approach of is to merge several protocols into one component. For example, in ad hoc networks, MAC and routing protocols can be combined into one protocol in order to closely consider their interactions.

    28. Overview • Introduction • Network Architecture • Critical Design Factors • Advances and Research Challenges • Network Capacity • Layered Communication Protocols • Network Management • Security • Cross-Layer Design • Conclusion

    29. Conclusion • Scalability. Based on existing MAC, routing, and transport protocols, network performance is not scalable with either the number of nodes or the number of hops in the network. • Security. WMNs are vulnerable to security attacks in various protocol layers. Current security approaches may be effective to a particular attack in a specific protocol layer. • Self-organizationand self-configurationcapability is a desired feature in WMNs. It requires protocols in WMNs to be distributive and collaborative.

    30. Reference [1] J. So and N. Vaidya, “Multi-Channel MAC for ad hoc Networks: Handling Multi-Channel Hidden Terminals using a Single Transceiver,” ACM Int’l. Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Net. and Comp. (MOBIHOC), May 2004, pp. 222–33. [2] Markus Winter and Steffen Prusseit and Gerhard P. Fettweis “Hierarchical Routing Architectures in Clustered 2D-MeshNetworks-on-Chip”

    31. Q & A

    32. Thanks for your listen