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Objective 2: demonstrate an understanding of the organization of living systems. Biology of the Individual. The Very Basics, Cells.

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objective 2 demonstrate an understanding of the organization of living systems

Objective 2:demonstrate an understanding of the organization of livingsystems.

Biology of the Individual

the very basics cells
The Very Basics, Cells

Know that cells are the basic structures of all living things and have specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells and have different properties and functions.


Investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules.


Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components.

  • Organelles:

(1) nucleolus (2) nucleus (3) ribosome

(4) vesicle (5) rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

(6) Golgi apparatus (7) Cytoskeleton

(8) smooth ER (9) mitochondria (10) vacuole

(11) cytoplasm (12) lysosome (13) centrioles

  • A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein that is found in cells.
  • It is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences.
  • Chromosomes also contain DNA-bound proteins, which serve to package the DNA and control its functions.
  • The chromosomes are located in the nucleus.
  • Humans have 23 pairs.
  • A gene is the basic unit of heredity in a living organism.
  • All living things depend on genes.
  • Genes hold the information to build and maintain an organism's cells and pass genetic traits to offspring.
  • Genes are located on the chromosomes.
  • In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, and is usually separately enclosed within its own lipid membrane.
  • A very small organ. It has a specific job to do.
  • The nucleolus is a non-membrane bound structure composed of proteins and nucleic acids found within the nucleus.
  • the nucleus is sometimes referred to as the "control center“ of the cell, is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
  • It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins to form chromosomes.
  • It holds the instructions for the cell.
  • Ribosomes are the components of cells that make proteins from amino acids.
  • They are located outside the nucleus.
  • mRNA travels to the ribosomes to meet with tRNA to make amino acids and then proteins.
  • A vesicle is a bubble of liquid within a cell.
  • More technically, a vesicle is a small, intracellular, membrane-enclosed sac that stores or transports substances within a cell.
rough endoplasmic reticulum er
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an eukaryotic organelle that forms an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles, and cisternae within cells.
  • Cisternae may also refer to flattened regions of the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
  • ER is like the plumbing.
golgi apparatus
Golgi Apparatus
  • The Golgi apparatus (also called the Golgi bodies, Golgi complex
  • The primary function of the Golgi apparatus is to process and package macromolecules, such as proteins and lipids, after their synthesis and before they make their way to their destination; it is particularly important in the processing of proteins for secretion. The Golgi apparatus forms a part of the cellular endomembrane system.
  • The cytoskeleton (also CSK) is a cellular "scaffolding" or "skeleton" contained within the cytoplasm that is made out of protein.
  • The cytoskeleton is present in all cells.
  • It gives the cell form, support, and structure.
  • The cytoplasm is the part of a cell that is enclosed within the cell membrane.
cell membrane
Cell Membrane
  • The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane) is one biological membrane separating the interior of a cell from the outside environment.
  • The cell membrane surrounds all cells and it is semi-permeable, controlling the movement of substances in and out of cells.
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) has functions in several metabolic processes, including synthesis of lipids and steroids, metabolism of carbohydrates, regulation of calcium concentration, drug detoxification, attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins, and steroid metabolism.
  • A mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
  • Mitochondria are sometimes described as "cellular power plants" because they generate most of the cell's supply of (ATP) adenosine triphosphate, used as a source of the chemical energy.
  • In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in a range of other processes, such as signaling, cellular differentiation, cell death, as well as the control of the cell cycle and cell growth.
  • Lysosomes are the cells' garbage disposal system.
  • Lysosomes are spherical organelles that contain enzymes (acid hydrolases).
  • They break up food so it is easier to digest.
  • They are found in animal cells.
  • Lysosomes digest excess or worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria.
plant cell
Plant Cell
  • Plant cells have the same organelles as animal cells with the addition of a cell wall and chloroplasts.
  • Cell walls give structure, connections and support.
  • Chloroplasts are what make plants green and produce food for the plant through photosynthesis.
chloroplasts only in plant cells
Chloroplasts (only in Plant Cells)
  • Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and other eukaryotic organisms that conduct photosynthesis.
  • Chloroplasts capture light energy to conserve free energy in the form of ATP through a complex set of processes called photosynthesis.
  • The word chloroplast is derived from the Greek words chloros, which means green, and plast, which means form or entity
cell wall only in plant cells
Cell Wall (only in Plant Cells)
  • A cell wall is a tough, usually flexible but sometimes fairly rigid layer that surrounds some types of cells.
  • It is located outside the cell membrane and provides these cells with structural support and protection, and also acts as a filtering mechanism.
  • A major function of the cell wall is to act as a pressure vessel, preventing over-expansion when water enters the cell.
  • Animals and protozoa do not have cell walls.
  • Viruses are not considered living things because they lack the ability to reproduce on their own.
  • They must attach to a host cell and use its DNA to reproduce.
  • Viruses look like space ships that have spikes and receptors sticking out.
dna rna

Know the structures and functions of nucleic acids in the mechanisms of genetics


Describe components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and illustrate how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA.

  • Explain replication, transcription, and translation using models of DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA).
  • Identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations and evaluate the significance of these changes.
dna deoxyribonucleic acid
  • DNA is sometimes called "the blueprint of life" because it contains the code, or instructions for building and organism and ensuring that organism functions correctly.
  • Just like a builder uses a blueprint to build a house, DNA is used as the blueprint, or plans, for the entire organism.

It is the chemical component of chromosomes, which are located in the nucleus of every cell. Segments of DNA (or bands on chromosomes) code for genes.

  • Gene - a segment of DNA that codes for a protein, which in turn codes for a trait (skin tone, eye color..etc), a gene is a segment of DNA.
  • The structure of DNA was established by James Watson, Francis Crick & Maurice Wilkins.
basic shape of dna
Basic Shape of DNA
  • The shape of the DNA molecule is a double-helix (like a twisted ladder).
  • The sides of the ladder are composed of alternating sugars (deoxyribose) and phosphates.
  • The rungs of the ladder are composed of nitrogen base pairs.
  • The rungs of the ladder can occur in any order (as long as the base-pair rule is followed)
  • For instance, a segment of DNA could be AATGACCAT - which would code for a different gene than a segment that read: GGGCCATAG.
  • All in all, there are billions of (nitrogen base, phosphate deoxyribose) groups in cells, which code for all the things an organism needs to function.
parts the rungs of the ladder the base where you stand
Parts: The rungs of the ladder, the base where you stand.
  • Nucleotides (3 part structure:

nitrogen base, phosphate,


  • Adenine, Thymine, Guanine,

Cytosine or A, T, G, C

  • Bases pair in a specific way - called the Base-Pair Rule
  • Adenine pairs to Thymine: T & A
  • Guanine pairs to Cytosine: G & C
dna replication
  • Replication is the process where DNA makes a copy of itself.
  • Why does DNA need to copy? Simple: Cells divide for an organism to grow or reproduce, every new cell needs a copy of the DNA or instructions to know how to be a cell.
  • DNA replicates right before a cell divides.
  • DNA replication is semi-conservative. That means that when it makes a copy, one half of the old strand is always kept in the new strand. This helps reduce the number of copy errors.
  • The way DNA makes exact copies.
  • It splits down the bases and makes exact copies of itself.
  • When DNA untwists and separates and produces mRNA
  • RNA is formed by bonding to DNA
rna ribonucleic acid
RNA Ribonucleic Acid
  • DNA remains in the nucleus, but in order for it to get its instructions translated into proteins, it must send its message to the ribosomes, where proteins are made.
  • The chemical used to carry this message is Messenger RNA mRNA
rna is similar to dna except
RNA is similar to DNA except:
  • 1. has one strand instead of two strands.
  • 2. has uracil instead of thymine
  • 3. has ribose instead of deoxyribose, a different sugar
  • mRNA has the job of taking the message from the DNA to the nucleus to the ribosomes.
types of rna
Types of RNA

Several types of RNA are synthesized in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Of particular interest are:

  • messenger RNA (mRNA). This will later be translated into a polypeptide.
  • transfer RNA (tRNA). RNA molecules that carry amino acids to the growing polypeptide.
  • There are some others that you do not need to know now.
  • Translation - Proteins are made from the message on the RNA






  • The mRNA goes to the ribozones and tRNA makes amino acids then proteins.
proteins are made
Proteins are Made
  • mRNA has the job of taking the message from the DNA to the nucleus to the ribosomes.

Gene Transcription: DNA → mRNA

  • DNA serves as the template for the synthesis of mRNA.
messenger rna mrna
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
  • Messenger RNA comes in a wide range of sizes reflecting the size of the polypeptide it encodes. Most cells produce small amounts of thousands of different mRNA molecules, each to be translated into a peptide needed by the cell.
  • Many mRNAs are common to most cells, encoding "housekeeping" proteins needed by all cells (e.g. the enzymes of glycolysis).
  • Other mRNAs are specific for only certain types of cells. These encode proteins needed for the function of that particular cell (e.g., the mRNA for hemoglobin in the precursors of red blood cells).
transfer rna trna
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
  • Each tRNA carries one of the 20 amino acids (thus most amino acids have more than one tRNA responsible for them).
  • Base pairing between tRNA with its amino acid and its corresponding mRNA brings the correct amino acid into the growing polypeptide chain which forms a protein.

Gene expression occurs in two steps:

  • transcription of the information encoded in DNA into a molecule of RNA.
  • translation of the information encoded in the nucleotides of mRNA into a defined sequence of amino acids in a protein.
  • DNA  mRNA  tRNA Proteins
codon chart
Codon Chart
  • You must be able to read a codon chart.
  • A gene is the basic unit of heredity in a living organism.
  • All living things depend on genes.
  • Genes hold the information to build and maintain an organism's cells and pass genetic traits to offspring.
  • Genes are located on the chromosomes.
heterozygous homozygous
Heterozygous ; Homozygous
  • Genes: Units of heredity information that consist of DNA and are located on chromosomes.
  • Genes can exist in alternative forms called alleles.
  • An allele is an alternative form of a gene (one member of a pair) that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome.
  • Heterozygous refers to having two different alleles for a single trait.
  • Homozygous refers to having identical alleles for a single trait.

Know applications of taxonomy and can identify its limitations.


Taxonomy means top classify or put into like groups.

  • Identify characteristics of kingdoms including monerans (bacteria), protists, fungi, plants, and animals.
  • The classification names are usually in Latin, so you will see some funny names.
  • Kingdom King
  • Phylum Phillip
  • Class Came
  • Order Over
  • Families For
  • GeneisGreat
  • Species Spaghetti

more specific

more alike

  • ArchaebacteriaLive in harsh environments
  • Eubacteria
  • Protista
  • Fungi
  • Plantae
  • Animalia
  • Viruses are not included because they cannot reproduce without a host.

Know that, at all levels of nature, living systems are found within other living systems, each with its own boundary and limits.


Interpret the functions of systems in organisms including circulatory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal, respiratory, muscular, excretory, and immune.

  • Compare the interrelationships of organ systems to each other and to the body as a whole.
body systems
Body Systems
  • The structure of everything:

Atom  Molecules  Cells  Tissues  Organs  Organ Systems  Organisms  Populations  Communities  Ecosystems  Biomes

  • Life starts with the cell and moves upward becoming more connected and more complicated.

The Human Body must maintain homeostasis (a balance). The organs of the body work together in organ systems to perform specific functions.

  • Organ systems are connected and work together to allow the body to function.
  • Homeostasis: to keep the same.
integumentary system
Integumentary System
  • The skin, hair, and nails.
  • Keeps the insides in and the outsides out.
  • Protects, prevents infection, and maintains body temperature by sweating and goose bumps.
skeletal system
Skeletal System
  • The structural framework of the body.
  • Protects the vital organs.
  • Produces red blood cells.
  • The muscles are attached to them so they can pull.
muscular system
Muscular System
  • Gives the body movement through


  • Makes the body organs work:

the heart pumps blood through the body;

the lungs breath in and out; the digestive system moves food in and out.

  • Forms simple machines with the bones so the body can do work through mechanical advantage.
nervous system
Nervous System
  • The brain, spinal cord, the senses.
  • It controls the other body systems.
  • It gathers information and reacts to it.
  • It maintains homeostasis.
endocrine system
Endocrine System
  • The chemical plant of the body.
  • It produces the hormones and other chemicals that your body needs

to grow and mature.

  • Your glands.
  • It causes puberty.
reproductive system
Reproductive System
  • To make babies; To keep the species going.
  • Female: ovaries: ovum
  • Male: testis: spermatozoa (sperm)
  • Sex cells are called gametes, a fertilized egg is called a zygote.
circulatory system
Circulatory System
  • To move blood around the body that carries nutrition (food) and oxygen to the cells and to remove waste and carbon dioxide from them.
  • The blood carries the waste to other systems for removal and goes to other systems to get more good stuff.
  • Includes: Heart, blood cells

veins, and arteries.

respiratory system
Respiratory System
  • Breathing. In with the oxygen (O2) and out with the carbon dioxide (CO2).
  • Gas exchange with bloods help..
  • Nose and mouth, throat, lungs.
immune system
Immune System
  • Your body’s defenses.
  • Fights infection, white blood cells, fever.
  • Helper T Cells macrophages turn on the immune response and start attaching invaders.
  • The AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) virus attaches the Helper T Cells so they cannot fight off infection.
digestive system
Digestive System
  • Eating food, nutrition.
  • Food in, chew, swallow, into the stomach, stomach churns and with acid digests it, into small intestines where the nutrients are passed to the red blood cells and taken to other cells, the waste from the other cells are deposited into the large intestines by the red blood cells where it is mixed with fluids and eliminated.
  • It’s the food in and out system.
excretory system
Excretory System
  • The body’s liquid waste removal system.
  • Red blood cells pass through the kidneys where the blood is filtered removing the waste.
  • Kidneys ureter blatter urethra  out  flush.
body systems1
Body Systems
  • You must know how they work together.
  • How one helps the other.