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Nutrition in Nursing. Steps to a healthier patient. Overview of Nutrients. Proteins (macronutrients)- required for proper growth & development; composed of amino acids. Adult recommended daily allowance (RDA) -0.8 grams/kg/day, 10% total calories

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nutrition in nursing

NutritioninNursing

Steps to a healthier patient

overview of nutrients
Overview of Nutrients
  • Proteins (macronutrients)-required for proper growth & development; composed of amino acids.
  • Adult recommended daily allowance (RDA) -0.8 grams/kg/day, 10% total calories
  • Additional protein needed for infants, children, and pregnant or lactating women.
  • Insufficient amounts can lead to protein energy malnutrition- i.e. atrophy and wasting away of muscle & poor wound healing.
overview of nutrients1
Overview of Nutrients
  • Carbohydrates-macronutrients: include starches, sugars (fructose, glucose, lactose, sucrose), and cellulose
  • 4 calories/gram; are key source of energy.
  • Found in fruits, vegtables, milk, and grains
  • Promotes normal metabolism, including fat metabolism
  • Spares protein
  • Insufficient amount results for protein and fat being used up.
overview of nutrients2
Overview of Nutrients
  • Fats (macronutrients): Concentrated sources of energy, provides 9 calaries/gram
  • Needed for proper absorption of fat-soluble vitamins
  • Stored in body to maintain body warmth and cushion or protect internal organs.
  • Sources include animal products-i.e., egg yolk, organ meat, butter, cheese, various oils.
  • The cholesterol content determine if the fat is- saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated.
  • The more solid the fat the higher the saturated fat.
  • Leads to obesity, heart disease, and some cancers if taken in large amounts over a long period of time.
  • Insufficient intake can result in ↑ risk infection, skin lesions, amenorrhea, and cold sensitivity (no fat stores).
overview of nutrients3
Overview of Nutrients
  • Minerals (micronutrients): Part of the bones, cells, and hormones.
  • Enhances cellular function
  • Widely abundant in foods.
  • Major minerals-calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, and phosphorus.
  • Trace elements-iron, iodine, copper, zinc, selenium, manganese, flouride, chromium, and molybdenum.
  • Mineral intake can also be supplemented-usually as a multivitamin.
overview of nutrients4
Overview of Nutrients
  • Vitamins (micronutrients): classified as water soluble (B and C vitamins)-easily excreted from the body or fat soluble (vitamins A, D, E, K)-which can be stored and cause toxicity if taken to excess.
  • Used as catalysts of body functions, coenzymes in metabolic processed, for growth, collagen production, wound healing, hormone synthesis, and vision.
  • Can be obtained through diet alone or supplementation.
  • Depends on the supplement- for example: Folic acid-is found in orange juice, meat, leafy green vegtables-If there is a deficiency it can cause nutritional anemia or neural tube defects in unborn chidren.
the food pyramid steps to a healthier you
The Food PyramidSteps to a healthier you

GRAINS

VEGETABLES

FRUITS

OILS

MILK

MEAT & BEANS

grains make half of your grains whole
GrainsMake half of your grains whole
  • List a few examples of grains that are plentiful in your area.
  • Discuss how much children should eat every day and when they might have them.
  • Together, research and discuss the health benefits of grains.
  • Encourage children to list foods that they like from this food group.
vegetables vary your veggies
VegetablesVary your veggies
  • List a few examples of vegetables that are plentiful in your area.
  • Discuss how much children should eat every day and when they might have them.
  • Together, research and discuss the health benefits of vegetables.
  • Encourage children to list foods that they like from this food group.
fruits focus on fruits
FruitsFocus on fruits
  • List a few examples of fruits that are plentiful in your area.
  • Discuss how much children should eat every day and when they might have them.
  • Together, research and discuss the health benefits of fruits.
  • Encourage children to list foods that they like from this food group.
oils know your fats
OilsKnow your fats
  • List a few examples of oils and fats.
  • Discuss how much children should eat daily and what foods contain oils and fats.
  • Together, research and discuss the health benefits associated with the different kinds of oils and fats.
  • Encourage children to list foods that they like from this food group.
milk get your calcium rich foods
MilkGet your calcium rich foods
  • List a few examples of milk products.
  • Discuss how much children should eat daily and when they might have them.
  • Together, research and discuss the health benefits of milk products.
  • Encourage children to list foods that they like from this food group.
meat and beans go lean on protein
Meat and BeansGo lean on protein
  • List a few examples of meat and bean products that are plentiful in your area.
  • Discuss how much children should eat daily and when they might have them.
  • Together, research and discuss the health benefits of meat and beans.
  • Encourage children to list foods that they like from this food group.
discretionary calories extras for luxury foods
Discretionary CaloriesExtras for luxury foods
  • What are discretionary calories?
  • Discuss how many discretionary calories children should eat every day.
  • Solicit class feedback for examples of ways to use discretionary calories.
physical activity strive for 60 minutes or more per day
Physical ActivityStrive for 60 minutes or more per day
  • What is physical activity?
  • Discuss moderate vs. vigorous activity.
  • Solicit class feedback for examples of moderate and vigorous activities.
eat well and stay healthy
Eat Well and Stay Healthy!
  • Encourage children to use the MyPyramid Worksheet, for a week, and to eat their favorite foods in each group to meet their daily requirements.
  • Download the worksheet here: MyPyramid Worksheet.
  • Discuss their findings at the end of the week.
  • How might each child eat more healthfully?
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Summarize the health benefits of each food group.
  • Encourage children to do research on any new finding about food and health.
  • Encourage children to continue keeping a food diary.
  • Encourage children to strive for 60 minutes or more of physical activity every day.
  • Ask your school nurse or doctor to visit the class to share facts about food and health on an ongoing basis.