Ch. 4.2 - The Industrial Revolution:Changes in technology in Western Europe & the United States ca. 1750 - 1850
What do you need to start an Industrial Revolution? Preconditions • Geography: able to grow food, easily transport food and goods (soil, waterways) • Technology – new ideas, inventions, for growing food, new products • Supply of capital (money) • Natural resources – to make things • Labor force – people to produce things • Markets – people who will buy the things produced – so sellers can make profits $ • Government stable and friendly to business • Incentive – Let’s change! Make profits
I. Ind. Rev. Began in Britain • Contributing Factors: • Agricultural revolution • Population growth • Supply of capital (money) • Rich in natural resources • Government’s “laissez-faire” attitude; political stability • Empire provided a market for goods • Geography: An island nation
I. Industrial RevolutionBegan in Britain • Contributing Factors: • Agricultural revolution: increase in food supply meant more people could be fed at lower prices, with less labor • Population growth (and so more workers -- labor supply) as a result of more food supplies • Supply of capital to invest & entrepreneurs seeking profits; highly developed banking system • Rich in natural resources, including coal, iron ore, and natural waterways -- for both fuel and transportation • Government’s “laissez-faire” attitude towards econ. and social regulation; politically stable (wars fought on the continent) • Large empire provided a market for goods and a source of raw materials • Geography: Britain an island nation, allowing easy sea trade, less risk of invasion
B. Agricultural Revolution 1. Enclosure movement: large, wealthy landowners bought up small farms on which they could experiment and apply the scientific approach to farming. JethroTull was one of the first scientific farmers. 2. Methods such as crop rotation and selective breeding were employed by the scientific farmers.
C. Effects of the Agricultural Revolution • Population grew because of higher quality and more food available • Increased population led to higher demand for food and goods • As farmers lost land to enclosures, they left rural villages and moved to the cities to work in factories
Cottage Industry: Home-Based Production of Goods to Sell
D. Changes in Cotton Production: the Textile Industry Hargreaves’ Spinning Jenny 1764: • Industrialization began in the textile industry; specifically the demand for cotton • One invention led to another as spinners and weavers tried to keep up with demand for cotton cloth Arkwright invented the Waterframe in 1769.
While spinners and weavers created inventions to keep up with each other’s speed, the cotton growers were now falling behind 1793: while working on a plantation in Georgia to pay college debts, Whitney developed Cotton Gin, hoping to receive a patent and thus a handsome profit. Negative impact: increased demand for both land and slave labor due to the profitability of cotton growing Eli Whitney & The Cotton Gin
Industrial Revolution, from 18th century: • Inventions, new methods boosted agricultural production of crops – more, cheaper food • Population surged as food became cheaper • Inventions created machines, used new sources of power, to mass produce goods – (Textile industry – cotton -- the first) … • … and created new form of transportation – steam-powered engines: Railroads • New sources of energy -- coal, iron ore, use of water, steam – fueled machines, transportation • Factories built to make goods – people moved from rural areas to cities – urbanization
E. The Transportation Revolution 1. James Watt developed the steam engine in 1765. 2. Steam was a cheap, convenient source of power. 4. In 1804, the 1st steam-powered locomotive ran on an industrial rail line. “The Iron Horse”
F. The Effect of the Railroads: • Spurred industrial growth by giving manufacturers a cheap way to transport goods & raw materials • Created new jobs to construct and operate rails, and in mining • Boosted agricultural and fishing industries • Increased travel for pleasure and allowed people to take distant jobs
Social Changes: Transportation Economic Changes
Railways cut the cost of transporting goods How many horses would be needed to transport 40 tons by road? Economic Changes
G. Factory Life • New machines were large and expensive, so factories were built to house machines. • Initially built near power sources (water); later w/ the development of new sources of fuel, factories moved to urban centers • People migrated to cities to work in factories
TheRailroadRevolution,1850s • Immigrant laborbuilt the No. RRs. • Slave laborbuilt the So. RRs.
Improvements in Transportation • Water Transportation • Robert Fulton builds first steamboat, the Clermont, in 1807 • England’s water transport improved by system of canals
II. Industrialization Spreads • Up until 1825 it was illegal for engineers, mechanics, and toolmakers to leave England • 1789: Samuel Slater emigrates illegally to US, • Builds spinning machine from memory and partial design • A year after Slater arrived in the US: 1st textile factory opens in US
Germany: • Politically divided, but pockets of industrialization • Built RR to connect manufacturing cities • Econ. strength led to military development by the late 19th C., Germany was both an industrial and military powerhouse
France: industrialized after 1850, delayed by war, debts; built RR Spain: cotton production, industrialization delayed by lack of transportation (roads & canals) Austria-Hungary: geography (mountain range) blocked RR building
Due to the Napoleonic Wars & the French Rev. (1789 – 1815), G.B. remained the “economic superpower” of the 19th C. • More trade • More iron & coal than the rest of the world combined • Produced more than 70% of Europe’s cotton cloth • After 1815, industrialization spreads to the continent
Industrialization in the US • U.S. was mainly agricultural until the end of the Civil War (1865) • Technology boom caused by: • Natural resources (oil, coal, iron) • Inventions (light bulb, telephone) • Growing population • Railroads, large cities grew up along RR lines (Chicago, Minneapolis) • Funded by entrepreneurs who sold shares of stock, buyers became part-owners in corporations (Standard Oil, Carnegie Steel)
Lowell Mill Girls • Single young women left rural homes to work as “mill girls” • Watched to ensure “proper behavior” • 12 hour days/6 days/week, but decent income • Good alternative to becoming a servant