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HIST 202 - HESEN. The U.S. and World War I, 1914-1918. Long-Term Causes of World War I. Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism Remember MAIN!. Alliance Systems. Triple Alliance/Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Italy…until 1915. Triple Entente/Allied Powers

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The U.S. and World War I, 1914-1918


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long term causes of world war i
Long-Term Causes of World War I
  • Militarism
  • Alliances
  • Imperialism
  • Nationalism
  • Remember MAIN!
alliance systems
Alliance Systems
  • Triple Alliance/Central Powers
    • Germany
    • Austria-Hungary
    • Ottoman Empire
    • Italy…until 1915
  • Triple Entente/Allied Powers
    • Great Britain
    • France
    • Russia
    • Italy…in 1915
    • U.S….in 1917
balkan powder keg
Balkan Powder Keg
  • Problems in Serbia
    • Austria-Hungary governs
    • One of the smallest European countries
    • Black Hand
      • GavriloPrincip
      • June 28, 1914 – assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
american neutrality
American Neutrality
  • U.S. traded with all Allied countries
  • 1915 – British blockade Germany
    • Effects:
      • U.S. can’t trade with Germany
      • German enters famine
      • Germany blames Great Britain and U.S.
submarine warfare
Submarine Warfare
  • Response from Germany – “Eliminate the blockade”
  • Targeted merchant and military vessels
  • Lusitania – May 7, 1915
      • 128 Americans died
  • Sussex – March 1916
    • Sussex Pledge – sink with warnings only
economic links with allies
Economic Links with Allies
  • Tied chiefly to Great Britain and France
  • U.S. makes war supplies – sends to Allied Powers
  • Blame blockade for not trading with Germany
  • 1914-1917 – trade with Great Britain and France quadrupled
public opinion
Public Opinion
  • Americans favored Britain and France
  • Germany – “bully of Europe”
    • Reinforced with Lusitania
  • Loans to businesses – JP MORGAN
ethnic influences
Ethnic Influences
  • Second generation immigrants in U.S.
  • Make-up 30% of population
  • Sympathizers
    • Germans – “homeland”
    • Irish – hates British
    • Russians – great protectors
opposition to the war
Opposition to the War
  • Mostly from the Midwest and West
  • Scared that U.S. would get involved
  • Progressives
  • Populists
  • Socialists
  • Pacifists
going to war
Going to War
  • Major U.S. causes:
    • Unrestricted submarine warfare
    • Zimmerman Telegram
    • Russian Revolution
  • Declaration of War – April 2, 1917
fighting over there
Fighting “Over There”
  • Conditions
    • Trench warfare
    • Trench foot
    • Chemical warfare
    • Shell shock
    • Affected Allied and Central Powers ***
u s mobilization
U.S. Mobilization
  • Committee on Public Information
    • George Creel
  • Food Administration
    • Herbert Hoover
  • National War Labor Board
  • War Industries Board
public opinion and civil liberties
Public Opinion and Civil Liberties
  • Espionage and Sedition Acts (1917)
    • Prohibited disloyal speech
    • Applied to all Allied Powers
    • Imprisonment – 2,000
    • Schenck v. U.S. - 1919
armed forces
Armed Forces
  • Selective Service Act
    • June 1917
    • 2.8 million men put into lottery
    • Made up half of the fighting force
    • African-Americans
      • 400,000 served in segregated units
      • W.E.B. DuBois
effects on american society
Effects on American Society
  • MORE JOBS!!
    • Men leave --- factory jobs taken by women
    • Men leave cities – migrants move North from South
world war i ends
World War I Ends
  • War ends November 11, 1918
  • Hailed as a major Allied victory
    • 116,000 U.S. troops killed
    • 5 million Russians dead