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生物化學課程改進之研究. 賴明德教授 生物化學及分子生物研究所 成功大學醫學院 2008. 大綱. 教學內容之歷史演變 中外教學方法之比較 教學方法之研究 結語. 引言. 生物化學 (Biochemistry) 從字面上看便是從化學的角度解釋生物現象。 From Wikipedia: Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. 教學. 教學之成功決定於 [ 教學內容 ] 及 [ 教學方法 ] 。. 教學內容.

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slide1

生物化學課程改進之研究

賴明德教授

生物化學及分子生物研究所

成功大學醫學院

2008

slide2
大綱
  • 教學內容之歷史演變
  • 中外教學方法之比較
  • 教學方法之研究
  • 結語
slide3
引言
  • 生物化學(Biochemistry)從字面上看便是從化學的角度解釋生物現象。
  • From Wikipedia: Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms.
slide4
教學
  • 教學之成功決定於[教學內容]及[教學方法]。
slide5
教學內容
  • 從歷史的角度看,生命科學在八零年代之後突飛猛進,改變最大的應是增加很多的分子生物學及細胞生物學。其中分子生物學的內容常被置在生物化學之範圍內,所以也導致生物化學的教科書動輒上千頁。
  • 如二本最熱門且歷時數十年為廣多教師所使用的生化課本(Prof. A. Lehninger與Prof. L. Stryer),我們常簡稱你使用的教科書是Lehninger or Stryer. 若比較三十年前的Lehninger 和三十年後的Lehninger textbook最大的差異,便是在於新增加的分子生物。由於分子生物內容增加快速,有時也自行獨立成為單獨學門。
slide6
分子生物學
  • 所謂分子生物(Molecular Biology)一般包括 Genome organization, DNA replication, DNA repair, Transcription, Regulation of Transcription, Translation, Post-translational regulation. 其中除了translation是早期生化便己有較明確之知識外,其他大多是重組DNA技術後,利用新的分子生物技術所增加的知識。
slide7
醫學教科書
  • 另外有一本Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry 是由Lange出的比較像Review 類的供醫學系學生使用的。這本書可能由於分子生物學在醫學考試中仍未佔重要部分,其中分子生物學所佔比例並未大量增加。這本書較適合醫學相關學生,在學完生化之後,碰到相關問題,在此textbook中尋找基礎生化知識,但不太適合新學生學習,不易理解,且內容較少知識獲得之研究過程及推論。
the evolution of textbooks
The evolution of textbooks

1950 1960 1970 1980 1990-2000

CD-ROMs,

problems,

instructors texts,

study guides,

transparencies

web sites.

Two-color

start logics

of biochem.

Stryer: full color,

problems.

The first

molecular

cell textbook,

DNA comes

first.

More figures

Math and

Chem

downgraded

Linear

description

the changing faces of textbooks
The changing faces of textbooks

a | The Meselson and Stahl experiment

according to Baldwin, Dynamic

Aspects of Biochemistry fourth

edition (1963) (C) Cambridge Univ.

Press,

and b | according to

Mathews and Van Holde (1996),

Biochemistry, second edition, (C)

Benjamin Cummings, Redwood City,

California.

slide10
教學方法
  • 比較對象:
  • 國內:台大,陽明,成大
  • 美國:Ohio State University, Indiana State University.
  • 中國:中國醫科大學
slide11
教師人數
  • 大部分生物化學課程皆由數位老師共同上課,在醫學院中尤其明顯,雖可顧及生物化學內容之多樣化,但有些時候課程便會顯得支離破碎。
  • 這种現象改進的方式有二:(a) 一位老師最少教三至四章,使學生較易貫聯式的接受,(b) 教授生物化學教師需旁聽以便了解其他教師上課的內容及方式,可幫忙銜接上課。
power point file
教學Power-Point file
  • 比較各國不同生物化學教學:大致上類似
  • 但美國之教師除教科書外,常會自己編上課教材(Syllabus),可能是語言使用較熟悉。
slide13
網路教學或教材
  • 較易由一或二人編寫,因生物化學常由太多人共同上課,要協調較不易。目前國內外,大多是個人撰寫。
  • 若使用教科書之圖,在網路上恐有侵權問題,相對而言,教師自行繪圖,在國內僅有少數教師具有此能力,除非學校給予相當支援。
slide16
教學投影片樣例(陽明)

上課時也會加入新內容

slide17
教學投影片樣例(以另一位老師而言,則也用中文來幫助說明)教學投影片樣例(以另一位老師而言,則也用中文來幫助說明)
slide24
教學投影片樣例(中國醫科大學)

其課程設計也有注重實用性

slide27
教學投影片樣例(中國醫科大學)

其設汁在最後也有觀念複習

slide28
中外教學法的差異
  • 結論:中外教學法其實大同小異,差異的是在個別教師使用的方法不同。
slide29
國外教學網頁-樣例
  • http://themedicalbiochemistrypage.org/
  • Recognized by Science Magazine in NetWatch columnScience vol. 291 pp. 559, Jan. 26, 2001
  • Executive Member IU Center for Regenerative Biology and Medicine
  • Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, IU School of Medicine
slide30
大陸教學網頁-樣例
  • http://www.cmu.edu.cn/curriculum/coursehome.asp?courseid=51221634精品課程平台-生物化學
  • 中國醫科大學生物化學與分子生物學教研室承擔著全校“生物化學”課程的理論課教學和實驗課教學,其層次包括本科生、七年制、國際英文醫學班、臨床醫藥學院、成人教育和網絡學院。
slide31
台灣教學網頁-樣例
  • http://juang.bst.ntu.edu.tw/
  • 台大生命科學院莊榮輝教授
slide32
教學法的研究
  • BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY EDUCATION
  • A journal published by American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
  • http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/112782101/home
  • 也有生命科學教育含細胞生物學的雜誌
  • Cell Biology Education
  • A Journal published by American Society of Cell Biology
  • http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?journal=97&action=archive
  • http://www.cellbioed.org/
slide33
傳統教學法改進研究 (1)
  • 使用類比教學法
  • 由於生物化學含有一些抽象觀念,教師有時會用一些類比(analogies)的方式幫忙學生理解,也有一些老師擔心如此的類比破壞學生的正確觀念。
slide34
例子
  • The instructor of the 100-level class compared the cooperative binding of oxygen gas to hemoglobin to tearing a stamp out of a 2 X 2 pane of four stamps. To remove the first stamp, two perforations must be torn; successive stamps are easier to remove because fewer perforations must be torn, just as the binding of each successive oxygen molecule to hemoglobin requires less energy than that of the previous molecule
slide35
比喻
  • 比喻(analogies)可以是強有力的教學工具,因為他們可以將抽象物質可理解,通過對學生比較已經是熟悉的材料。 在這項研究,我們採訪43名學生他們在他們的生化課使用比喻去學會生化的確定具體方式。 我們發現學生在他們的生化課使用各種各樣獨特的比喻方式使用比喻促進瞭解,形象化、回憶和增加學習動機。
slide37
教師須注意學生使用比喻之時機
  • 教師希望使用類比之目的: 幫助他們的學生利用比喻建立他們需要瞭解的生物化學的概念和背景知識之間的聯繫。
  • 然而,學生對比喻的的用途與他們的教師為使用比喻的目的沒有很好的關聯。
  • BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY EDUCATION
  • Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 244–254, 2007
slide38
傳統教學法改進研究 (2)
  • 教學輔助技巧:black-board, power-point, slide-projection之評估
  • 這項研究的目標將調查學生首選的的生化學科教學的技術,例如傳統黑板、power-point或者滑投射。由巴西數所州立大學在生物醫學和醫學系學生作為研究對象,其結果相當有趣,多數學生、從生物醫學和從醫學路線419位139位大學生,首選傳統黑板教學比較起滑投射或者power-point類。
  • BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY EDUCATION
  • Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 263–266, 2007
slide39
傳統教學法改進研究 (3)
  • 使用個例研究(A Case-Problem Study) 的學生,相對沒有使用個例研究,學生顯著更加巨大的學習的獲取,并且展示對高次想法的技能的用途。 初步數據表明在與個例研究銜接以後,與沒有使用個例研究的學生比較,學生更可能恰當地回答關於有氧呼吸作用問題。
  • BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY EDUCATION
  • Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 181–186, 2007
slide40
教學個案
  • Aerobic cellular respiration is typically regarded as a difficult topic for students to learn and for instructors to teach since it is a complex biological process that involves integrating multiple concepts. The case study entitled ‘‘The Mystery of the Toxic Flea Dip’’ was created in an interrupted case study format as one approach for students to learn the process of aerobic cellular respiration. The case is based on actual events in which a 4-year-old girl died from rotenone poisoning after washing her dog with flea dip.
slide41
傳統教學法改進研究 (4)
  • 傳統教學的樂趣
  • In one of the courses I teach, I give lectures about half of the time. Despite my commitment to problem-based learning (PBL)1 and other student-centered constructivist teaching strategies, I must confess that I still enjoy lecturing.
  • However, my many years of experience with PBL have made me a much more reflective lecturer. When I do lecture in class, I have a heightened awareness of what I am doing, why I am doing it, and how it might impact student learning. I also read closely the nonverbal cues of student boredom and confusion and try to adjust accordingly.
slide42
傳統教學法
  • Problem-based-Learning 或其他 Active learning 可幫助學生參予學習過程,也可幫助老師了解學生如何學習。但同時間,老師可根據自己專長喜好及學生類型進行Lecture-based or PBL-based teaching.
1 cooperative learning
主動學習法 (1) Cooperative learning
  • Cooperative learning
  • 國外的研究對此都有相當正面的評價
  • 所有課程包含了三部分:宗旨、方法和發展和對題目的評估。這新的方法開發與學習 隊工作 (team work)、責任 (responsibility)和表達能力(communication)。 二或三學生形成小組依照老師的指示合作地工作,老師先用短週期演講那的澄清容易被誤會的概念。 家庭作業減到了最小。 在這聯合的方法學與傳統(純演講)做一個比較,學生表示對新的方法的更高的滿意。 他們在學習進程更介入了并且對主題有更好的態度。 對這新的方法學,在學生的平均學術比分的顯著地增加。
slide44
主動學習法 (1)
  • 但在實行此方法時,有時學生對某部份課程,會因某組學生未認真盡責,而有學習較空洞之問題。教師應注意此類問題。
  • Cooperative Learning Combined with Short Periods of Lecturing
  • A GOOD ALTERNATIVE IN TEACHING BIOCHEMISTRY
  • BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY EDUCATION
  • Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 34–38, 2008
2 process oriented guided inquiry learning pogil
主動學習法 (2) Process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL)
  • An NSF-funded project, is a widely used active learning approach that was pioneered in chemistry. POGIL involves creating a learning environment in which students actively engage in mastering a discipline and in developing essential skills by working in self-managed teams on guided inquiry activities (www.pogil.org).
  • Thus POGIL promotes learning of course content, while simultaneously developing in students important process skills including information processing, critical thinking, problem solving, teamwork, and communication. Published POGIL materials are available for general, organic,
  • physical chemistry, and GOB (general, organic, and biochemistry) courses. The effectiveness of POGIL in general chemistry has been previously described.
  • The complete activity described may be found at the POGIL website (www.pogil.org).
2 process oriented guided inquiry learning pogil1
主動學習法 (2) Process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL)
  • Our activities include three components for each class day: a pre-activity assignment, a classroom activity, and a post-activity skill exercise. Taken together, this structure follows the learning cycle and guides students to develop and apply fundamental biochemical concepts. To understand the function of each component of our guided inquiry activities, consider the enzyme catalysis activity, which has four learning outcomes:
  • 1. Apply your understanding of intermolecular forces to rate enhancement.
  • 2. Explain general acid–base catalyzed reactions and apply to enzyme-catalyzed reactions.
  • 3. Generalize your understanding of rate enhancement of an acid/base catalyzed reaction to other
  • types of enzyme-mediated catalysis.
  • 4. Integrate your understanding of rate enhancement and rate determining step in DG versus reaction coordinate diagrams. The pre-activity assignment includes outlining the reading; students are required to generate notes and two quality questions. A quality question is one in which the
  • student attempts to connect the new material with prior knowledge.
seattle university
Seattle University 實例
  • Biochemistry courses at Seattle University have been taught exclusively using process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) without any traditional lecture component since 1997. In these courses, studentsparticipate in a structured learning environment, which includes a preparatory assignment, an in-class activity, and a follow-up skill exercise. At the end of this course, most students report feeling confident in their knowledge of biochemistry and report substantial gains in independence, critical thinking, and respect for others.
  • Lecture-free Biochemistry
  • A PROCESS ORIENTED GUIDED INQUIRY APPROACH
  • BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY EDUCATION
  • Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 172–180, 2007
enzyme inhibition assignment
Enzyme Inhibition—Assignment
  • Read over the sections in your book about enzyme inhibition.
  • For the equations that describe enzyme inhibition, write equations for KMapp and Vmaxapp in terms of KM, Vmax, [I], and Ki.
  • Write a brief statement explaining why scientists conduct inhibition studies. What knowledge do we gain from them?
slide52

如何增加教室內討論(1)How to Create Successful Discussions in Science Classrooms. BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY EDUCATIONVol. 35, No. 6, pp. 397–403, 2007

slide54
教學和研究配合(1)
  • 台灣增加實驗能力的方式大都是用專題研究的形式到各實驗室實習。
  • 大陸地區,以復旦大學為例,是使用和台灣較類似,以進入各教師實驗室為主,但這必須各大學研究較強,且對大學部學生之參予研究有興趣。
  • Participation in Research Program
  • A NOVEL COURSE IN UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION OF LIFE SCIENCE
  • BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY EDUCATION
  • Vol. 35, No. 5, pp. 322–327, 2007
slide55
教學和研究配合(2)
  • 簡而言之,目前大學行政組織希望用最少數之教師達成研究之教育,其可使用的方式,便是讓高年級學生參予實驗設計及評估。但生化實驗之設計必須要實際化。
  • Teaching Undergraduate Research
  • THE ONE-ROOM SCHOOLHOUSE MODEL
  • BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY EDUCATION
  • Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 28–33, 2008
slide58
教學和研究配合(3)
  • 如何增加教學和研究的聯結:
  • 課程的安排決定於目的:增加研究設計能力或增加實驗技巧
  • Open-ended Assignments and Student Responsibility*
  • BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY EDUCATION
  • Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 187–192, 2007
slide59
教學和研究配合(3)
  • An inquiry-based laboratory course was created in an effort to increase student responsibility in learning and to improve teaching in areas related to molecular medicine. Authentic medical cases with both scientific and clinical aspects formed the basis of a project-oriented course that also included student laboratory work focused on the disease-related proteins. Students used basic biochemical techniques to develop and test hypotheses relating their results to the clinical findings. The course also included patient demonstrations to personalize students’ knowledge of case presentations, lectures on basic biochemical principles relevant to the molecular basis of the cases, and seminars by invited guests with expertise in translational medicine. Students developed proposals for future research as part of the final examination.
slide61
教學和研究配合(3)

此新課程的學習效果

利用學生及老師分別自評

利用考試評此,和傳統實驗課比較

slide62
結論
  • 目前的生物化學的改進方向:
  • 更具一致性的教法
  • 啟發對生命科學之興趣
  • 使用啟發性教學產生higher-ordered thinking.
  • 使教學和研究更結合成為一体
slide63

教學流程分析

賴明德教授

生物化學及分子生物研究所

成功大學醫學院

2002

slide64
教學

設定教學對象

選定教學內容

現場教學方式

學習成果檢驗

slide65
教學對象

20

人數

10

學生資質

slide66
教學對象

20

人數

10

學生資質

slide67
教學對象
  • Undergraduate or Graduate?
  • We must be aware that student background usually get better each year.
  • Quality of students may change in different years. (you can judge from the student’ answer to your question in the class.)
slide68
教學

設定教學對象 (大多數或優秀群)

中人以上,可以語上也;

中人以下,不可以語上也。

─論語─雍也

選定教學內容

現場教學方式

學習成果檢驗

overflow of information
教學內容:Overflow of information
  • Have we equipped such students with the skills to tackle their rapidly evolving subject?
  • Asking this question is worthwhile because, paradoxically, the increasing mass of information that biochemistry students now face might be hindering their future ability to analyze that information.
  • Considering the past might help us to shape the future of education in the molecular life sciences
the future of education in the molecular life sciences
The future of education in the molecular life sciences
  • The changing landscape of education in biochemistry and molecular biology presents many challenges for the future, for students and educators alike.
  • The exponential increase in knowledge, the genomics, proteomics and computing revolutions, and the merging of once separate fields in biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics, mean that we need to rethink how we should be preparing today's science students for the future. What do we need to change, and how will we implement it?
tackling the expansion of knowledge
Tackling the expansion of knowledge
  • There is now too much information around for anyone to know and memorize: the teacher does not know it all and the student certainly cannot be expected to remember it all. As educators, we should ask: what are the qualities that we need future molecular life scientists to have? By identifying these we can then begin to think about how these qualities can be instilled into future undergraduates of biochemistry and molecular biology.
  • A related issue is whether or not there is a necessary core of material that a student should be expected to know. Do students really need to know the structure of prostaglandin E2, the formal kinetic mechanism of glutamate dehydrogenase, the specificity of EcoR1 or the roles of the Grim and Reaper proteins in apoptosis, so long as they know how to access this information if they need it?
slide72
教學內容之選擇
  • 選擇適合學生未來工作研究需求之內容,而不是過去教師學習時課程之重點。(教師從事研究工作將有助判斷)
  • 教師取得課程內容共識。
  • 不只傳遞知識,也傳授方法。
  • 君子引而不發。─孟子
schonefeld training mathematics problem solving
Schonefeld: Training Mathematics Problem Solving
  • 如果真的可能,試畫圖解表示。
  • 若有整數參數出現,就尋找歸納式論證(inductive argument)。
  • 以較少的變項,考慮一個類似的問題。
  • 嘗試建立次目標。
  • 考慮用 「矛盾法」(contradiction)和 「對換法」(contra-positive)來做論證。
    • 對換法:不直接丟證明 「倘X為真,則Y為真」,你可以去證明等值語句 「倘Y為假,則X必為假」。
    • 矛盾法:為了要做論證,先把你想要證明的語句假定為假。使用這一假定,繼續證明「問題中某一已知條件為假」;「你知其為真的某些事物為假」,或者證明 「你想證明的事物為真」。如果你能夠做到這些之中的任何一個,則你已證明了你想證明的事物。
the ideal education in biochemistry
The ideal education in biochemistry

1. Understanding of the fundamentals of chemistry and biology and the key

principles of biochemistry and molecular biology.

2. Awareness of the major issues at the forefront of the discipline.

3. Ability to assess primary papers critically.

4. Good 'quantitative' skills, such as the ability to prepare reagents accurately

and reproducibly for experiments.

5. Ability to dissect a problem into its key features.

6. Ability to design experiments and understand the limitations of what the

experimental approach can and cannot tell you.

7. Ability to interpret experimental data and identify consistent and

inconsistent components.

8. Ability to design follow-up experiments.

9. Ability to work safely and effectively in a laboratory.

10. Awareness of the available resources and how to use them, including

the ability to collaborate with other researchers.

11. Ability to think in an integrated manner and look at problems from different perspectives.

what do budding biochemists need to understand
What do budding biochemists need to understand?

1. Fundamentals of macromolecular structure and function; how to determine

macromolecular structure.

2. Modes of macromolecule–ligand interactions and approaches to study them.

3. Basic concepts of biocatalysis (including ribozymes).

4. Enzyme kinetics and inhibition.

5. Basic mechanisms of the control of cellular processes and reactions.

6. Techniques of macromolecular isolation and characterization.

7. How to use sequence and structural databases.

8. Fundamentals of computational chemistry and molecular modeling.

what do budding biochemists need to understand1
What do budding biochemists need to understand?

9. The uses of techniques such as cloning, polymerase chain reaction,

site-directed mutagenesis, phage display and array technology.

10. Cellular structure and compartmentalization including the functions of

subcellular organelles.

11. Basic mechanisms of cell division and macromolecular synthesis.

12. Basics of tissue development and differentiation.

13. Basics of genetic disease.

14. Fundamental differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes;

molecular evolution.

15. Fundamentals of cellular and molecular immunology, and the fundamental

lifestyles of pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

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教學

設定教學對象 (大多數或優秀群)

選定教學內容 (學生未來之需求,方法

共識之新課程)

現場教學方式

學習成果檢驗

changing teaching methods
教學方法:Changing Teaching Methods
  • Although the traditional lecture still forms the basis of most undergraduate courses, new teaching methods have been devised, including group work (such as designing a poster together and problem-based sessions), reflection on how learning took place, peer marking and peer assessment, as well as the use of computers. Although these help to deal with diminishing staff-to-student ratios, they have other benefits too: for example, collaborative projects teach students how most people work in the 'real world', give students responsibility, and encourage active learning.
slide80
傳統教學方式建議
  • 連續性課程,在上課開始時,使用1-2分鐘回顧前一堂課內容。
  • 在上課結束時,使用2-3分鐘複習本堂課內容。
  • 一分鐘考卷:保留下課最後一分鐘要求學生對一兩個問題在紙上陳述作答。這些問題可能是:今天上課最重要的內容或是他們最聽不懂的部份。這些問題可提供師生雙向溝通。
  • 追蹤考核這些討論是必須的。
slide81
準備傳統教學內容之建議
  • 教學投影片或幻燈片是幫助學生了解,而非供老師閱讀,不應含太多文字。若有很多內容須放在同一張投影片,則可標示其重點部分。
  • 圖解有利於學生了解。
slide82
APC

1. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor

suppressor gene binds to b-catenin, a protein

interacts with Tcf and Lef transcription factors.

2.APC deficient colon cells contain a stable

b-catenin/TCF complex which constitutively activate

the TCF-regulated gene expression (such as myc).

slide83
APC

1. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor

suppressor gene binds to b-catenin, a protein

interacts with Tcf and Lef transcription factors.

2.APC deficient colon cells contain a stable

b-catenin/TCF complex which constitutively activate

the TCF-regulated gene expression (such as myc).

Cell membrane

Nuclear membrane

APC

WNT

dsh

GSK3b

b-catenin

Tcf/Lef myc

jnk null mice
JNK null mice
  • Mice deficient of JNK1 or JNK2 appear to be morphologically normal. However, these mice are immunodeficient due to severe defects in T cell function. No evidence for a defect in T cell activation (proliferation and IL-2 secretion) was obtained. Instead, the deficiency was identified as a requirement of JNK for the appropriate differentiation of CD4 T helper cells into effector cells. The mechanism was reported to be mediated, in part, by alterations in the function of the NFAT1 transcription factor and by defects in IFN secretion . In contrast, one group has reported that JNK2 may be required for T cell activation at low levels of stimulation and that the mechanism is mediated, in part, by JNK-dependent regulation of IL-2 mRNA stability. Nevertheless, there is agreement amongst all of these reports that at moderate and high levels of immune challenge, JNK is not required for T cell activation. However, JNK is required for effector T cell function. An important question concerns why T cells are sensitive to defects in JNK1 or JNK2 expression. This may result from the pattern of JNK expression in murine T cells. Immature T cells (thymocytes) express high level of JNK1 and JNK2. However, JNK expression is down-regulated in peripheral T cells. JNK is therefore expressed at low levels in naive T cells, but the expression of JNK is up-regulated following immune challenge. The low level of JNK expression in naive T cells may account for the sensitivity of these cells to targeted disruption of the Jnk genes.
jnk null mice1
JNK null mice
  • Mice deficient of JNK1 or JNK2 appear to be morphologically normal. However, these mice are immunodeficient due to severe defects in T cell function. No evidence for a defect in T cell activation (proliferation and IL-2 secretion) was obtained. Instead, the deficiency was identified as a requirement of JNK for the appropriate differentiation of CD4 T helper cells into effector cells. The mechanism was reported to be mediated, in part, by alterations in the function of the NFAT1 transcription factor and by defects in IFN secretion . In contrast, one group has reported that JNK2 may be required for T cell activation at low levels of stimulation and that the mechanism is mediated, in part, by JNK-dependent regulation of IL-2 mRNA stability. Nevertheless, there is agreement amongst all of these reports that at moderate and high levels of immune challenge, JNK is not required for T cell activation. An important question concerns why T cells are sensitive to defects in JNK1 or JNK2 expression. This may result from the pattern of JNK expression in murine T cells. Immature T cells (thymocytes) express high level of JNK1 and JNK2. However, JNK expression is down-regulated in peripheral T cells. JNK is therefore expressed at low levels in naive T cells, but the expression of JNK is up-regulated following immune challenge. The low level of JNK expression in naive T cells may account for the sensitivity of these cells to targeted disruption of the Jnk genes.
slide86
傳統教學法之態度
  • 勿有傲慢之態度,言詞應尊重學生。
  • 教師本人須對課程內容有較高之興緻。
  • 導引學生之興趣 (if possible): (1) 談分生歷史,(2)醫學相關典故
  • 當大量學生昏睡時:(1)講笑話或時事評論,(2)問學生問題,(3)下課
slide87
教學

設定教學對象 (大多數或優秀群)

選定教學內容 (學生未來之需求;

共識之新課程;

傳授學習方法)

現場教學方式 (勿輕忽傲慢;

一分鐘考卷)

學習成果檢驗

slide88
傳統教學法之成績評等

考試方式及內容將導引學生學習方向

報告

考試

筆試

口試

口頭

書面

slide90
報告方式評等
  • 優點:(1)增進學生尋找資料,(2) 組織能力,(3) 表達能力,(4) 及共同合作能力。
  • 缺點:(1) 無法涵蓋完整內容,學生易僅有部份之認知與了解。(2) 易產生不合宜之作弊。
  • 追蹤考核及和學生討論這些報告是必須的,學生方能知其不足,並改進之。
slide91
口試
  • 教也者,長善而救其失也。─學記
  • 善問之人,如匠善攻治堅木,先研治其濡易之處,然後砍其節目。─禮記正義
slide92
筆試方式評等
  • 筆試之問題:間接延伸推論化。
  • 筆試之問題:多樣化
problem example
Problem example
  • Which of the following ends does NOT contain a free 3’-OH group?

A. 5’ end of a procaryotic mRNA

B. 5’ end of an eucaryotic mRNA

C. 3’ end of a procaryotic mRNA

D. 3’ end of an eucaryotic mRNA

problem example1
Problem example
  • Teaching material: Eucaryotic intron always starts with GU and ends with AG.
  • 直接式Problem: Eucaryotic intron always

A. starts with GA and ends with AG

B. starts with GU and ends with AG

C. starts with AG and ends with UG

D. starts with GU and ends with UG

problem example2
Problem example
  • 間接式Problem:
  • Which of the following DNA sequences may contain an intron?

A.GCAATGTGCATGCGACGTACCTCATACTCTCGATCGATC

B.GCAATGTGCATGCGACGTACCTCATACTCTCGAGCGATC

C.GCAATGCGCATGCGACGTACCTCATACTCTCGATCGATC

D.GCAATGCGCATGCGACGTACCTCATACTCTCGAGCGATC

problem example3
Problem Example (直接型)
  • The activity of the following enzymes is most likely to decrease as cyclic AMP increases?

A. glycogen phosphorylase

B. glycogen phosphorylase kinase

C. glycogen synthetase

D. Glycogen synthetase phosphatase

problem example4
Problem example (多樣化)
  • An infant is admitted to National Cheng Kung University Hospital with a suspected glycogen-storage disease. A series of tests were performed on a liver biopsy with the following results:

I. Examination of liver glycogen showed an essentially normal structure

II. Examination of the activities of enzymes of glycogen synthesis and breakdown showed them all to be within normal limits.

III. Blood glucose was abnormally low, 12-20 mg/100 ml (normal is about 75 mg/100 ml)

IV. Feeding of glucose resulted in rapid elevation of blood glucose, but there was no increase in blood glucose upon feeding of fructose or galactose (fructose and galactose enter glycolysis at the level of triphosphates and glucose-6-P, respectively)

V. No hyperglycemic effect was observed upon administration of epinephrine or glucagon.

From these observations you could conclude correctly that the enzyme defect in this patient is

A. hexokinase, B. fructose-1,6-diphosphatase, C. glucose-6-phosphatase,

D. hexose-1-P-uridyl transferase, E. adenyl cyclase

slide99
教學

設定教學對象 (大多數或優秀群)

選定教學內容 (學生未來之需求;

共識之新課程;

傳授學習方法)

現場教學方式 (勿輕忽傲慢;

一分鐘考卷)

學習成果檢驗 (間接、多樣化)

what do we need to do
What do we need to do?

1. An integrated education: merging the disciplines

2. Education strategy: increasing the involvement of the student in the

process of education.

3. Changing the examination system: Courses should move away from

having too many in-class tests to using other methods of assessing the

progress of students, such as laboratory reports that mimic original research

papers, research reports and presentations, literature reports and topic papers

4. A taste of real research

5. Using the electronic resources

6. Fostering responsibility: students involve in every aspects of integrated

education, students must know where they can learn.

7. Educating the publics.

8. From idea to implementation!

references
References
  • Edward J. Wood. Biochemistry and molecular biology teaching over the past 50 years. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (2001) 2: 217-221.
  • Ellis Bell. The future of education in the molecular life sciences. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (2001) 2: 221-225.
  • Academic duty (1997) by Donald Kennedy (中文譯本學術這一行 by 楊振富、天下遠見出版社)
  • Educational Psychology: A Cognitive Approach (1987) by Richard Mayer. (中文譯本by 林清山、師範大學教育學院院長、遠流出版社)
  • 當老師的第一本書。鄭義風、王戎(廣西師範大學出版社、正中書局)