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Psychology 3318. Davison and Neale Chapter 1 Introduction: Historical and Scientific Considerations. Definitions of Psychopathology. Statistical Infrequency Violation of Norms Personal Distress Disability or Dysfunction Unexpectedness. Mental Health Professions.

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psychology 3318

Psychology 3318

Davison and Neale

Chapter 1

Introduction: Historical and Scientific Considerations

definitions of psychopathology
Definitions of Psychopathology
  • Statistical Infrequency
  • Violation of Norms
  • Personal Distress
  • Disability or Dysfunction
  • Unexpectedness
general models of psychopathology
General Models of Psychopathology
  • Demonology
    • Psychopathology arises from evil spirits
    • Still part of much contemporary thought
    • Stresses moral aspects of the disorder
  • Somatogenesis (biogenesis)
    • Psychopathology is physical illness (structural)
  • Psychogenesis
    • Psychopathology arises from learning (functional)
  • Political issues are often important
somatogensis
Somatogensis
  • Hippocrates and humor theory
  • Merged with demonology in middle ages
    • Witchcraft
    • Malleus Maleficarum (Witches Hammer)
  • Asylums
    • Bethlehem (Bedlam)
  • Moral Treatment
    • Pinel at La Bicêtre
    • William Tuke at York Asylum (England)
    • Dorthea Dix in US
somatogenesis cont
Somatogenesis (Cont.)
  • Vesalius and anatomy
  • Griesinger: Diagnosis must specify biological cause
  • Kraelpin: Syndromes (collection of symptoms), first diagnostic system.
  • Pasteur and germ theory
  • General paresis found to have biological cause.
psychogenesis
Psychogenesis
  • Importance of hysteria: Symptoms without apparent biological cause
  • Mesmer
    • Hysteria caused by disturbance of magnetic fluid
    • Placed patients in baquet (tub)
    • Very charismatic
    • Introduced hypnosis
  • Charcot
    • More orthodox and famous neurologist
    • Fooled by students into believing a hypnotized woman was a conversion hysteric
psychogensis cont
Psychogensis (Cont.)
  • Breuer
    • Treated Anna O.
    • Introduced cathartic method in which emotional release was undertaken
    • Coauthored Studies in Hysteria with Freud
  • Freud (discussed more fully in next chapter)
    • Well trained as neurologist
    • Noted patients with no biological pathology
science as a human enterprise
Science as a Human Enterprise
  • There is debate how objective science is
  • Thomas Kuhn introduced notion of a paradigm: a conceptual framework in which scientist works that accentuates certain things and diminishes the role of others.
  • Newton, Einstein, and others created what many would call new paradigms.
  • Chapter 2 illustrates what might be called paradigms in psychopathology.
  • Your text provides an example of how behavioral therapists and traditional clinicians see behavior differently.