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Artemisia species in small ruminant production: potential antioxidant and anthelmintic effects. Jorge F.S. Ferreira, Ph.D. USDA-ARS, Appalachian Farming Systems Research Center July 11, 2009. Background on Artemisia spp. Genus named after Artemis the goddess of the hunt.
Jorge F.S. Ferreira, Ph.D.USDA-ARS, Appalachian Farming Systems Research Center
July 11, 2009
Rahmann & Seip 2007. Bioactive forage and phytotherapy to cure and control endo-parasitediseases in sheep and goat farming systems – a review of current scientific knowledge
Flavonoids are polyphenolic molecules produced by plants. They can be found in flowers, fruits, leaves, and roots. Some are polymerized into large molecules known as “tannins”.
TAC = total antioxidant activity
EtOH = ethanol
Br. = Brazilian
Ch. = Chinese
Sw. = Swiss
FD = freeze dried
OD = oven dried
Note: some Appalachian trees (e.g., sumac) have EXTREMELY high total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and deserve to be investigated for animal nutrition.
“Laboratory tests have determined that flavonoids are effective against malaria, Trypanosoma (Chagas disease), Leishmania, Cryptosporidium, and Toxoplasma.”
Note: Quercetin is a major flavonoid found in Artemisia spp., including A. annua (Lai et al. 2007. J. Chrom B 848:215-225).
However, flavonoids from Artemisia spp. and Paw-paw have not yet been tested scientifically.
Molly’s Herbal dewormers : wormwood, mugwort, garlic, black walnut, pumpkin, fennel, hyssop, thyme, and stevia.
Formula 1: 19 g/animal (630 mg/kg) once daily for 3 days, and repeated after 62 days
Formula 2: 19g/animal every 7 days except during the week Formula 1 was given.
1.Recommended doses could have been low (diluted) to reduce FECwith the plants used in the study.
2.Treatment regimen was not long enough.
3. Others have found herbals with wormwood, fennel, gentian, psyllium, and quassia (and the Ivomec control) to have varying efficacies depending on breeds of sheep and goats (Swartz et al. 2009. J. Anim. Sci. 83, Suppl 1/J, pg.64).
Although lespedeza hay worked (condensed tannins?) against Haemonchus (44%)+Trichostrogylus (54%), lespedeza was used from 50-75% of the diet for 21 days for a reduction in FEC, while 75% was needed to reduce adult worms in 74%.
Note: establishment of lespedeza in central Appalachia has proven difficult, and other plants (with and without tannins) must be investigated.
-Mostly in India, China, Africa, and South America, but snail hosts exist in the USA.
-Losses of $2-3 billion/year worldwide.