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The American revolution, 1754-1783

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Chapter 4. The American revolution, 1754-1783. Chapter 4 Section 1. The colonies fight for their rights. Road to Revolution. British colonists fought in many wars to defend the territories The War of Jenkin’s Ear (1739-1744) vs. Spain King George’s War (1744-1748) vs. France

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road to revolution
Road to Revolution
  • British colonists fought in many wars to defend the territories
  • The War of Jenkin’s Ear (1739-1744)
    • vs. Spain
  • King George’s War (1744-1748)
    • vs. France
  • The French and Indian War (1754-1763)
    • AKA “The Seven Years’ War
the french and indian war

Both sides interested in Ohio River Valley

  • Fort Duquesne
    • French
  • Fort Necessity
    • Built by George Washington
    • Surrendered to French in 1754
The French and Indian War
lt colonel george washington
Lt. Colonel George Washington
  • 22 years old at the beginning of the French and Indian War
  • Became a hero to the colonies through his war actions
the french and indian war1

The Albany Conference/Congress (June 1754) - An attempt by the British government to negotiate an alliance with the Iroquois.

  • Iroquois refused an alliance but agreed to remain neutral.
  • Britain should appoint one supreme commander of all British troops in the colonies.
  • Ben Franklin issued the Albany Plan of Union– plan for colonies to unite form a federal government.
    • Rejected by the colonies
The French and Indian War

What does this image illustrate?

What do you think its message is?

the french and indian war2

The British Triumph

    • British Commander Edward Braddock killed during French and Indian ambush (1755)
      • Washington retreats but his legend grows
    • Native Americans see that British can be beaten.
      • (1755-1757) Many different Native American tribes will join the French side and attack British colonists
The French and Indian War
the french and indian war3

Fighting continues in Europe, becomes known as the Seven Years’ War

  • British fleet cuts off the flow of French supplies and reinforcements and smallpox spreads– Native Americans end their attacks
  • French Fort Duquesne (Pennsylvania) becomes Fort Pitt (1758)
The French and Indian war
french and indian war
French and Indian War
  • The Battle of Quebec (1759)
  • British victory; turning point in the war in the American colonies
  • Spain enters the war (1761)
    • Join the French
    • Lose Cuba and Philippines to the British
the french and indian war4

The Treaty of Paris (1763) finally ends the war.

  • Results:
    • Eliminated French power in North America
    • British control everything east of the Mississippi, except New Orleans
    • Spain gives up Florida in exchange for the return of Cuba and the Philippines
    • France gives Spain control of New Orleans and land west of Mississippi River
The French and Indian War
the colonies grow discontented

During the French and Indian War, thousands of colonists joined the British army

    • The experience led to imperials and colonials disliking each other
  • British borrowed money for war
    • Now in debt
    • Believed colonists should pay for part of the war
The colonies grow discontented
tensions with britain

The Royal Proclamation of 1763 – drew a north-south line that forbid colonists from settling west of the line

    • To avoid a confrontation with the Natives
    • Angers colonial farmers and land owners
Tensions with britain
tensions with britain1

New customs reform from Parliament– smugglers would be sent to a court in Nova Scotia with no jury

    • Violated colonists’ rights as British citizens
    • John Hancock – wealthy smuggler
      • Defended by the lawyer, Samuel Adams
Tensions with britain
tensions with britain2

The Sugar Act – AKA “American Revenue Act of 1764”; increased taxes on sugar and molasses

    • Smugglers were “guilty until proven innocent”
    • British officials could seize goods without proper court procedures, AKA “due process”
    • James Otis – “No taxation without representation”
Tensions with britain
tensions with britain3

The Currency Act of 1764 – banned the use of paper money in the colonies

    • Reaction to inflation
    • Angered colonial farmers and artisans
Tensions with britain
tensions with britain4

The Stamp Act (1765) – required stamps to be placed on most printed materials

    • First direct tax on the colonists
  • The Quartering Act (1765) – colonists had to provide and pay for a place for British troops to stay
Tensions with britain
reactions by the colonists

The Sons of Liberty – organized outdoor meetings and demonstrations against the Stamp Act

    • Created by Isaac Sears
  • Stamp Act Congress (1765) – representatives from 9 colonies
    • Issued the Declaration of Rights and Grievances – only colonial political representatives had the right to tax
  • Colonists boycott all British goods
Reactions by the colonists
reactions by british

Stamp Act is repealed in 1766

  • Issued the Declaratory Act – Parliament had the power to make laws for the colonies
  • The Townshend Acts (1767) – new regulations and taxes
  • Revenue Act of 1767 – new customs duties on various goods
    • Enforcement: “guilty until proven innocent, seizure of goods without due process, writs of assistance (search warrants)
Reactions by British
another reaction by the colonists

Many colonies begin to organize resistance

    • Massachusetts resistance was led by Samuel Adams
    • 1768, Boston and New York merchants sign non-importation agreements; Philadelphia and Virginia join in 1769
    • Daughters of Liberty – spin their own rough cloth (homespun); a sign of patriotism to wear “homespun” clothing
Another reaction by the colonists
the boston massacre

March 5, 1770

  • British troops open fire against colonists, killing 5 and wounding 6 others.
    • Crispus Attucks
  • British repealed the Townshend Acts, except for a tax on tea.
    • Revolution is avoided temporarily
The Boston Massacre
comparing accounts of the boston massacre

Read the two accounts of the Boston Massacre on page 124-125.

  • Understanding the Issue
    • Answer questions 1-3
  • Critical Thinking Essay
  • Why was the Boston Massacre such a pivotal event in the colonies fight for their rights?
    • Were the colonist justified in their actions against the British soldiers?
    • Do you believe the events of the Boston Massacre were over publicized?
Comparing Accounts of the Boston Massacre
massachusetts defies britain

The Gaspee Affair (1772) – British ship seized and burned

    • Committee of Correspondence- unified and strengthened communication between colonies to shape public opinion.
Massachusetts defies Britain
boston tea party dec 16 1773

In response to the Tea Act

  • Colonists dump 342 chests of tea into the harbor
    • £10,000 worth of damage
Boston tea party (Dec. 16, 1773)
massachusetts defies britain cont

The Coercive Acts (1774)– came to be known as the Intolerable Acts by the colonists; in response to the Boston Tea Party

    • Closed Boston’s port until tea damages were paid
    • All Mass. officials were appointed by governor
    • British soldiers and officials were protected from American juries
    • Colonists must provide shelter for British troops
  • 2,000 British troops stationed in New England
  • British General Thomas Gage appointed governor of Mass.
Massachusetts Defies Britain (cont.)
massachusetts defies britain1

Virginia House of Burgesses dissolved

    • Patrick Henry – “give me liberty or give me death”
  • The First Continental Congress
    • September 5, 1774
    • 55 delegates represented 12 colonies
    • Issued another Declaration of Rights and Grievances
      • Expressed loyalty to the king but condemned the Intolerable Acts
Massachusetts Defies Britain
the revolution begins1

Massachusetts continues defiance; full-scale rebellion underway

  • Special units of men trained and ready to “stand at a minute’s warning in case of alarm.”
    • Minutemen
  • Loyalists (Tories) and Patriots (Whigs)
    • Divided towns and families
The Revolution Begins
the revolution begins2

(April 18, 1775) 700 British troops march towards Concord

  • Paul Revere, William Dawes, and Dr. Samuel Prescott
    • Warn Lexington and Concord; “Midnight Ride of Paul Revere” by Longfellow
  • The Battles of Lexington and Concord (April 19, 1775)
    • 8 Minutemen killed in Lexington; “shot heard ‘round the world”
    • British forced to retreat when reaching Concord; fired upon by militia and farmers on their way back to Boston
    • 99 British dead, 174 wounded
    • 49 militia dead, 46 wounded
The revolution Begins
the second continental congress

The militia army becomes the Continental Army.

(June 15, 1775) Washington is appointed general and commander.

British troops were currently under siege in Boston by militia surrounding the city

The Second Continental Congress
the battle of bunker hill june 16 1775

British troops attempt to take Breed’s Hill and Bunker Hill near Boston

  • British charged up the hill; militia fired at close-range
    • “Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes”
    • 2,200 British troops; 1,000 casualties
  • Militia repelled 2 advances; retreated when ammunition ran out
The battle of bunker hill (june 16, 1775)
the decision for independence

Olive Branch Petition (July 1775)

    • Colonies were still loyal but asked the King to call off hostilities.
  • Both sides learn there is no hope for peace
  • Proclamation for Suppressing Rebellion and Sedition (August 1775) – colonies were now enemies of England
  • Continental Congress creates postal system, navy, and marine corps
  • Fighting spreads across the colonies
The Decision for Independence
the decision for independence1

Common Sense

    • Pamphlet by Thomas Paine in which King George was depicted as the enemy, not Parliament.
    • 100,000 copies sold
  • Colonies now supported complete independence from Britain
  • (July 4, 1776) Continental Congress issues the Declaration of Independence
The decision for Independence
the opposing sides

32,000 British troops under the command of William Howe

  • Continental Army rarely numbered more than 20,000 at any one time.
  • Militia practiced guerilla warfare
The Opposing Sides
the northern campaign

General Howe’s two part plan to win the war quickly.

    • Military: Capture NY.
    • Diplomatic: Peace Conference with members of the Continental Congress.
      • Anyone who lays down arms and swears loyalty will be pardoned.
      • Americans refused
The northern Campaign
the northern campaign1

Opening Moves

    • British easily take New York but were slow to move on the surviving American troops.
  • Nathan Hale – a spy caught by the British, hanged
    • “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.”
  • Crossing the Delaware
    • December 25th, 1776, leads 2,400 men across the icy Delaware River.
    • Surprise winter attack on Hessians
    • Washington wins a pair of small victories.
The Northern Campaign
the northern campaign2

Philadelphia Falls (Sept. 11, 1777)

    • Howe captures Philadelphia.
    • Howe fails by allowing the Continental Congress to escape and not destroying the Continental Army.
  • Valley Forge (Winter 1777) – camp for the Continental Army
    • 2500 died from exposure, disease, and hunger.
    • Marquis de Lafayette and Baron von Steuben
      • Improved discipline and boost morale
The northern campaign
the northern campaign3

France Enters the War

    • Battle of Saratoga (Oct. 1777)
      • British General John Burgoyne planned to capture upper New York
      • Burgoyne surrenders after being surrounded by General Benedict Arnold*
      • Convinced France to commit troops to the American cause.
    • French are the first to recognize the United States as an independent nation
    • Ally with the United States
      • Spain allies with France, but not USA
The Northern Campaign
the war in the west

Ohio River Region

    • George Rogers Clark
  • Native American attacks
    • Iroquois join with the British; defeated by Americans
    • Cherokee attack settlers in Virginia and North Carolina; defeated by Americans
The War in the West
the war at sea

The Americans goal was to disrupt British trade

  • Letters of marque- Licenses, issued to private ship owners, authorizing them to attack British merchant ships.
  • John Paul Jones
    • “I have not yet begun to fight”
    • Prevented his ship from sinking and defeated the British
The War at Sea
the southern campaign

The fall of Savannah and Charles Town

    • British wanted to liberate loyalists supporters
    • Savannah captured
    • Charles Town was the greatest defeat of the war
      • 5,500 Americans captured
    • General Cornwallis takes over British after Charles Town
  • The Patriots Rally
    • Battle of Kings Mountain
      • Turning point in the war in the south
      • Convinced southern farmers to begin to organize their own forces
      • Francis Marion, “Swamp Fox” attacked British camps and supply wagons
The southern campaign
the war is won

The Battle of Yorktown

    • (Sept. 28, 1781) Washington and French forces surround Cornwallis at Yorktown.
    • (Oct. 19, 1781) British troops surrender.
  • The Treaty of Paris
    • Signed September 3, 1783.
    • Britain recognized U.S. sovereignty
  • (Nov. 25, 1783) The last British troops left New York City – Evacuation Day
The war is won
new political ideas

Established a republic - form of government when power resides with a body of citizens entitled to vote.

    • All citizens equal under the law.
    • Power comes from the people
  • New State Constitutions
    • Dangers of a true democracy
    • Government needed “checks and balances” and “separation of powers”.
    • Many included a list of rights (bill of rights)
New Political Ideas
new political ideas1

Voting Rights Expand

    • Revolution enabled people of lower classes to demand a greater role in choosing their leaders.
  • Freedom of Religion
    • “ecclesiastical tyranny”
    • Separation of church and state
    • Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom (1786) – eliminated the official church
New Political Ideas
the war and american society

Women at War

    • Molly Pitcher carried water to Patriot soldiers.
  • More educational chances for women after the war
    • Increased literacy
  • African Americans
    • About 5,000 served in militias and the Continental Army.
    • Gradual end to slavery in the North
    • Emancipation – freedom from enslavement
    • Manumission – voluntary freeing of slaves
      • Virginia in 1782
The War and American Society
loyalists flee

Shunned by former friends

  • Seizure of property by the state
  • 100,000 flee after the war
    • British North America (Ontario, Canada)
Loyalists flee
changes in education

Jefferson: education was the “keystone of our arch of government”

  • Government-funded universities
    • First state university – University of North Carolina
  • American-centered style of learning
Changes in education