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  1. Lesson Overview 17.4 Molecular Evolution

  2. THINK ABOUT IT The analysis of genomes enables us to study evolution at the molecular level. DNA evidence may indicate how two species are related to one another, even if their body structures don’t offer enough clues.

  3. Gene Duplication Where do new genes come from?

  4. Gene Duplication Where do new genes come from? One way in which new genes evolve is through the duplication, and then modification, of existing genes.

  5. Copying Genes Homologous chromosomes exchange DNA during meiosis in a process called crossing-over. Sometimes crossing-over involves an unequal swapping of DNA so that one chromosome in the pair gets extra DNA. That extra DNA can carry part of a gene, a full gene, or a longer length of chromosome.

  6. Duplicate Genes Evolve Sometimes copies of a gene undergo mutations that change their function. The original gene is still around, so the new genes can evolve without affecting the original gene function or product. A gene is first duplicated, and then one of the two resulting genes undergoes mutation.

  7. Duplicate Genes Evolve as a Result of Mutations

  8. Gene Families Multiple copies of a duplicated gene can turn into a group of related genes called a gene family. Members of a gene family typically produce similar, yet slightly different, proteins.

  9. Molecular Clocks  What are molecular clocks?

  10. Molecular Clocks What are molecular clocks? A molecular clock uses mutation rates in DNA to estimate the time that two species have been evolving independently.

  11. Neutral Mutations as “Ticks” Researchers use a molecular clock to compare stretches of DNA to mark the passage of evolutionary time. A molecular clock relies on mutations to mark time. Neutral mutations tend to accumulate in the DNA of different species at about the same rate.

  12. Neutral Mutations as “Ticks” Comparison of DNA sequences between species can show how many mutations occurred independently in each group.

  13. Neutral Mutations as “Ticks” The more differences there are between the DNA sequences of the two species, the more time has elapsed since the two species shared a common ancestor.

  14. Calibrating the Clock Because some genes accumulate mutations faster than others, there are many different molecular clocks that “tick” at different rates. These different clocks allow researchers to time different evolutionary events. Researchers check the accuracy of molecular clocks by trying to estimate how often mutations occur. They compare the number of mutations in a particular gene in species whose age has been determined by other methods.

  15. Developmental Genes and Body Plans  How may Hox genes be involved in evolutionary change?

  16. Developmental Genes and Body Plans How may Hox genes be involved in evolutionary change? Small changes in Hox gene activity during embryological development can produce large changes in adult animals.

  17. Hox Genes and Evolution Hox genes determine which part of an embryo develops arms, legs, or wings. Groups of Hox genes also control the size and shape of those structures. Small changes in Hox gene activity during embryological development can produce large changes in adult animals.

  18. Change in a Hox Gene Insects and crustaceans are descended from a common ancestor that had many pairs of legs. Crustaceans (such as brine shrimp) still have lots of legs. Insects, however, have only three pairs of legs.

  19. Change in a Hox Gene Recent studies have shown that in insects, a mutation in a single Hox gene, called Ubx, “turns off” the growth of some pairs of legs. Because of mutations in a single Hox gene millions of years ago, modern insects have fewer legs than modern crustaceans. A variant of the same Hox gene directs the development of the legs of both animals.