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EVIDENCED-BASED CLASSROOM MANAGMENT. Presenters: Josh Kuersten – Behavior Specialist, TCOE Conde Kunzman – SELPA Director, Shasta County Betsy Madison – Program Specialist, Shasta County Linda Cole and Sara Lincoln – Shasta Head Start Els Prigmore – Shasta Union High School District. Agenda.

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evidenced based classroom managment



Josh Kuersten – Behavior Specialist, TCOE

Conde Kunzman – SELPA Director, Shasta County

Betsy Madison – Program Specialist, Shasta County

Linda Cole and Sara Lincoln – Shasta Head Start

Els Prigmore – Shasta Union High School District

  • Foundations of Tier I Behavior Interventions
  • Evidenced Based Classroom Management

Afternoon Session

  • Second Step Overview
  • School Wide Information System – SWIS
  • Time to Teach
g higgins
G Higgins

Not all of us are a mess, you know…people often associate anyone who’s been abused with “There’s no hope for that child.”…Tell people we can do it. That you can survive all that and be a fully functioning member of the community. Don’t give up on that kid at age 7 and say, “Oh, he’s been through so much; he’s never going to amount to anything…”The abused are labeled. But you can change somebody around.

evidenced based criteria
Evidenced-based criteria

The use of a sound experimental or evaluation design and appropriate analytical procedures

Empirical validation of effects

Clear implementation procedures

Replication of outcomes across implementation sites

Evidence of sustainability (Kerr & Nelson, 2009, p.89)


Even the most abused and troubled children self-correct as they mature in age.

(Anthony, 1982m 1987; Garmezy, 1983, 1994; Werner and Smith, 1977)


Teachers are among the most likely mentors and positive influences for underachieving students. And school can often be the only bastion of stability in a student’s life. A committed school faculty, therefore, can do a great deal to enhance the life of every child. When acting in concert to create a reclaiming environment and to build systems to prevent failure, school communities dramatically enhance the likelihood for student success (Schorr, 1988).

think about it
Think About It!
  • Most of the traditional approaches to dealing with student behavior were based on the Skinnerian philosophy of reward and punishment.
    • Banishment
    • Labeling, then referring student to remedial programs, special education, and alternative schools

Since 1968, Lloyd Dunn brought to the attention of educators the over-representation of students of particular ethnicities in special education, countless research studies and reports – federal, state, and district have documented this trend.

  • Impact is a disproportional representation
    • African American Students
    • Latino Students
    • Native American Students
    • Students from low-income families

These groups are less likely to receive access to a rigorous and full curriculum, limited interaction with “able” peers and an increased sense of social stigmatization

exemplary practices
Exemplary Practices

Technical Assistance and Consulting Services (TACS) at the University of Oregon.

  • Analysis of state and school district data
  • Caroline Moore – Director

“We are looking in particular for the successful implementation of positive behavioral interventions and supports {PBIS} and response to intervention.”

think it through
Think It Through….

How does your school identify students who need additional behavioral support?

How early in those students’ academic careers does such identification and intervention take place?

the big five
The BIG Five

Maximize structure

Post, teach, review, monitor, and reinforce expectations

Actively engage students in observable ways

Use a continuum of strategies for responding to appropriate behaviors

Use a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behaviors

maximize structure and predictability
Maximize Structure and Predictability
  • High classroom structure
  • High rate of teacher directed activity
  • Huston-Stein, Friedrich-Cofer, & Susman, 1977
  • Morrison, 1979
  • Susman, Huston-Stein, & Friedrich-Cofer, 1980
structure and stability
Structure and Stability
  • Physical arrangement that minimizes distraction
  • Walls, visual dividers
  • personal space – reduce crowding whenever possible
  • Ahrentzen & Evans, 1984
  • Burgess & Fordyce, 1989
  • Maxwell, 1996
  • Weinstein, 1977
post teach review monitor and reinforce expectations
Post, Teach, Review, Monitor, and Reinforce Expectations
  • Post, teach, review, and provide feedback on expectations
  • Greenwood, Hops, Delquadri, & Guild, 1974
  • Johnson, Stoner, & Green, 1996
  • McNamara, Evans & Hill, 1986
  • Rosenberg, 1986
  • Sharpe, Brown, & Crider, 1995
post teach monitor and reinforce
Post, Teach, Monitor and Reinforce
  • Active Supervision
  • Colvin, Sugai, Good, & Lee, 1997
  • DePry & Sugai, 2002
  • Schuldheisz & Van Der Mars, 2001
actively engage students in observable ways
Actively Engage Students in Observable Ways
  • Rate of opportunities to respond (OTRs)
  • Response cards
  • Direct Instruction
  • Computer Assisted Instruction
  • Class wide peer tutoring
  • Guided Notes
  • Sutherland, Alder, & Gunter, 2003
  • Lambert, Cartledge, Heward & Lo, 2006
  • Clarfield & Stoner, 2005
  • DePaul, Ervin, Hook, & McGoey, 1998
  • Austin, Lee, Thibeault, Carr, & Baily, 2001
use of continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior
Use of Continuum of Strategies to Acknowledge Appropriate Behavior
  • Specific and/or contingent praise
  • Class-wide group contingencies
  • Behavioral contracting
  • Token economies
  • Sutherland, Wehby, & Copeland, 2000
  • Hansen, & Ligngaris,2005
  • Kelly & Stokes, 1984
  • Jones & Kazdin
continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior
Continuum of Strategies to Respond to Inappropriate Behavior
  • Error corrections
  • Performance feedback (with and without the addition of other strategies)
  • Differential reinforcement
  • Planned ignoring plus contingent praise and/or instruction of classroom rules
  • Singh, 1990
  • Yarborough, Skinner, Lee, & Lemmons, 2004
  • Zwald & Gresham, 1982
  • Hall, Lund, & Jackson, 1968
strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior
Strategies to Respond to Inappropriate Behavior
  • Error Corrections
  • Performance Feedback
  • Planned ignoring plus contingent praise and/or instruction of classroom rules
  • Response cost
  • Singh, 1990
  • Zwald, & Gresham, 1982
  • Yawkey, 1971
  • Trice, & Parker, 1983
classroom management assessment
Classroom Management Assessment
  • Team Time
    • Please complete the survey
    • Discuss your results with your school teams
behavioral rti

Behavioral RTI

Universal Supports:

Concrete Concepts and Examples

By: Josh Kuersten

Behavior Specialist TCDE

  • Out of seat whenever it’s independent math time and refuses to sit down regardless of my repeated requests. I have to stop everything and deal with him directly before moving on.
  • A = Independent Math
  • B = Out of seat
  • C = 1:1 teacher attention
discuss w neighbor
Discuss w/ Neighbor
  • What was A – B – C?


my breakdown
My Breakdown
  • A = sees the sweets (brief aside on motivating operations… in store and dad packing cart with what he wants, and what’s going to be available at home…. Supports? List, routine, point system for size of choice kid makes, let kid pick brands / flavors)
  • B = Tantrum, looks like: high pitched screaming, grabbing and shaking shopping cart, clearing things off of the shelves and laying on back pounding floor with fists and feet
  • C = ???  potential outcomes could be: dad walks away, dad puts sweets in cart, dad carries kid out and goes home
  • !!Dad faints and has a vision of taking the commercial’s advice!!
behavior rti
Behavior RTI

The “A – B – C” Approach to Universal Support

a b c of classroom
A-B-C of Classroom
  • A = Environment that supports the initializing of positive behavior
  • B = Expectations of student behavior (classroom culture)
  • C = Reinforcement / Redirection / Restrictions
  • B = Defines / Teaches positive behaviors
    • Posted / taught / reinforced expectations
    • Choices and Solutions for frustration
    • Imbedded into visual and academic environment
    • Student input / buy in
    • Strict / consistent / predictable
activity 15min
Activity 15min
  • Talk w/ team and discuss B:
    • Classroom expectations
    • Acceptable choices and solutions
    • How to imbed into 2-3 visuals and 1 academic
    • How to facilitate student input / buy in

*Remember to create expectations that staff are committed to: being strict, consistent and predictable with supporting and modeling*

examples resources
  • Photos and resources
  • A = Supports initiation of successful behaviors
    • Posters / matrix of expectations
    • Visual schedules (major / minor)
    • Consistent / Predictable staff responses
    • Physical arrangement allows for appropriate spaces
    • Activities
activity 15min1
Activity 15min
  • Talk with team and discuss A:
    • Where to put main and “mini” posters of expectations and what to matrix first
    • What type of major visual schedule best supports your behavioral needs and what areas should you develop mini schedules for
    • Responses for delivering reinforcement and enforcing limits
    • Preferred activities before focusing on tasks
examples resources1
  • Photos and resources
  • C = Reinforcement
    • Individual / whole class / small group
    • Immediate / delayed / long-term
    • Tangible / visual / verbal / kinesthetic
      • Token Economy • Specific Praise
      • Marble Jar • Self evaluation
      • Behavior report card • Level System
      • Teacher-student positive behavior card
      • Level system re: Privileges
activity 15min2
Activity 15min
  • Talk with team and discuss C:
    • Individual / whole class / small group systems that may fit your environment and address your needs (intensity level)
    • Come up with immediate R, delayed R, and long term R (consider group contributive R)
examples resources2
  • Photos and resources
beyond classroom
Beyond Classroom
  • When I think behavior RTI, I think:
    • Tier 1
      • Universal classroom
      • Universal Whole School
    • Tier 2
      • Focused intervention individual / small group / whole class
      • Focused intervention school-wide
    • Tier 3
      • Intensive intervention individual / small group / whole class
examples of school wide universal
Examples of School-wide Universal
  • Visual Supports
    • Posters
    • Location specific expectation
    • Friendly reminders
    • Clear room labels
    • Directions
examples of school wide universal1
Examples of School-wide Universal
  • Tangible Supports
    • Store bucks
    • Raffle tickets
    • Notes home
    • Merit posters
    • Parties
    • Lunch with ____
examples of school wide universal2
Examples of School-wide Universal
  • Kinesthetic
    • Rallies
    • 1st group / individual in cafeteria to eat
    • Early recess
    • Reinforcement officer
    • Activities with specific school staff / admin
examples resources3
  • Photos / resources
school wide team
School-wide Team

Purpose: to establish and support behavior RTI

  • Members: 1 Admin and 4 staff members (2-5)
    • Facilitate:
      • Organization of SWPBS with staff
      • Common “cut points” for minor / major violations
      • Similar procedures for reactive strategies to minor / major violations
      • Creation and distribution of tools needed to support this
school wide team1
School-wide Team
  • Maintain
    • Fidelity of universal components
    • Review data
    • Target and track students / areas for intervention
year 1 checklist
Year 1 Checklist
  • Classroom
    • Expectations
    • Routines
    • Procedures
    • Reinforcement (whole class)
    • Reactive strategies for minor / major violations
year 1 checklist1
Year 1 Checklist
  • School-wide
    • Expectations with visual supports around school
    • Procedures for R and for minor / major violations in all public areas of campus
    • Data collection / schedule of review
    • How to support fidelity of supports in classroom and school-wide (team)
my contact information
My Contact Information