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YOID -Your Own Internet Distribution. Bob Lindell Computer Networks Division USC/ISI http://www.isi.edu/div7/yoid. Yoid Fills an Important Need. IP Multicast is still not widely deployed Users need multicast type services Multiparty conferencing Multipoint file transfers

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yoid your own internet distribution
YOID -Your Own Internet Distribution

Bob Lindell

Computer Networks Division



yoid fills an important need
Yoid Fills an Important Need
  • IP Multicast is still not widely deployed
  • Users need multicast type services
    • Multiparty conferencing
    • Multipoint file transfers
  • Yoid can provide this functionality without waiting for IP multicast deployment
  • Direct applicability to DoD needs for multipoint data dissemination
yoid architecture
Yoid Architecture
  • Host-based distribution tree
    • Tunnelled over IP unicast (and multicast)
    • Buffering in hosts
  • DNS name-based group addressing
  • Dynamically self-configuring topologies
    • This is the challenge!

Efficient dynamic content distribution

without infrastructure support

tree building approaches

Tree First

  • Screen known members for tree neighbor validity
  • Explicitly select proximal tree neighbor
  • Run algorithm to detect loops
  • Good for dynamic peer to peer groups
Tree Building Approaches

Mesh First

  • Build proximal mesh
  • Run classical routing algorithm over mesh
  • Tree falls out
  • Good for a stable set of routers
yoid topologies
Yoid Topologies
  • Dynamically configured Tree and Mesh
    • Use IP multicast where available
  • Both can carry content frames
  • Tree Topology
    • Optimized for efficiency, but fragile
  • Mesh Topology
    • Optimized for robustness, but inefficient

Tree Link



(host with



(IP multicast)



yoid group lifecycle
Yoid Group Lifecycle
  • Rendezvous Nodes:
    • Uses DNS for naming
    • Bootstrap members into tree-mesh
  • Member Nodes:
    • Dynamically configure into tree-mesh
    • Loop detection and repair
    • Send, receive, and forward frames
    • Quality of Service (QoS) measurements
yoid functionality
Yoid Functionality
  • Multicast distribution using a bi-directional tree
  • Group and Host addressing
  • Message sequence numbers
  • Buffering for late joins
tree formation issues
Tree Formation Issues
  • Simultaneous joins could generate unwanted loops in the topology
  • Poor quality links, which should be at the leaves of the tree, are instead at branches of the distribution tree
  • Excessive fan-out at one node may exceed link capacities
loop detection
Loop Detection
  • Novel approach using a “switchstamp”
  • Quickly detects loops
  • Algorithm finds a node which needs to switch parents and break the loop
  • Chosen node is picked from those that recently joined the tree so as not to penalize established tree participants
qos adaptation
QoS Adaptation
  • Uses novel “lossprint” technique
  • Neighbors exchange information necessary to localize where in the tree the problem is rooted
  • Nodes take action to change tree topology to improve desired QoS metrics
yoid 2 protocol
Yoid 2 Protocol
  • Designed and implemented a second generation protocol
  • Base header was simplified and reduced to only 16 bytes
  • Other functionality was pushed into header options
  • Initial attempt to support nodes behind NATs
    • Many peers will be located behind NATs
current applications
Current Applications
  • Audio/Video conferencing using vat/rat/vic
  • Distributed Whiteboard using wb, wbd
  • Audio/Video conferencing using MS NetMeeting (H.323) and Unix using ohphone
  • IP multicast gateway application
  • Traffic generator
  • Monitoring tools
future applications
Future Applications
  • Instant Messaging
  • File Transfer
research directions
Research Directions
  • Naming
    • Addresses behind NATs, dynamic NAT rules
    • No domain names
  • Tree Construction
    • Robust Rendezvous
    • Security
  • Tree Topologies
    • Policies, Constraints
    • Improved QoS algorithms based on lossprint work
  • Porting Yoid software to MS Windows
  • Testing syscall interception on MS Windows to allow Netmeeting to run unmodified with “Yoidized” H.323 MCU
  • H.323 Video support
  • Research into algorithms for multiple RPs including recovery after network partitioning
status cont
Status (Cont)
  • Yoid is being used in the FTN Cossack project
    • Distributed Denial of Service
  • Support for Windows, Linux, FreeBSD, and Solaris
  • Release imminent
  • H.323 release to follow shortly
  • Staff
    • Bob Lindell: Acting PI
    • Yuri Pryadkin
    • Fabio Silva
  • Students
    • Pavlin Radoslavov: Graduated
  • MIA
    • Paul Francis
    • Ramesh Govindan
  • Demand for small virtual groups
  • Tree based distributions are important
  • NATs are a reality
  • QoS matters
  • Rich application suite needed