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4.05 Remember the structures of the reproductive system

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  1. 4.05 Remember the structures of the reproductive system

  2. Structures of the female reproductive system 4.05 Remember the Structures of the Reproductive System

  3. Ovary (female gonad) Located in the pelvic cavity About the size of an almond Each ovary contains thousands of microscopic sacs Ova Known as the female gamete or Graafian follicle Structures of the female reproductive system The ovum is the largest cell in the human body. 4.05 Remember the Structures of the Reproductive System

  4. Female gametes have 22 pairs of autosomes and a single pair of sex chromosomes – XX Structures of the female reproductive system Did you know??? What makes a person a girl instead of a boy??? 4.05 Remember the Structures of the Reproductive System

  5. Uterus Hollow, thick-walled, pear-shaped, highly muscular organ Lies behind the urinary bladder and in front of the rectum Structures of the female reproductive system 4.05 Remember the Structures of the Reproductive System

  6. Uterus – three sections –top to bottom Fundus Bulging upper part of the uterus Body The body is the middle portion Cervix The narrow portion that extends into the vagina Structures of the female reproductive system 4.05 Remember the Structures of the Reproductive System

  7. Uterus – 3 layers- outside to inside Perimetrium visceral peritoneum Myometrium Middle layer Endometrium Inner layer Structures of the female reproductive system Perimetrium Myometrium Endometrium 4.05 Remember the Structures of the Reproductive System

  8. Cervix The cervix is the lower end of the uterus Located at the end of the vaginal canal Approximately one inch long Structures of the female reproductive system 4.05 Remember the Structures of the Reproductive System

  9. Vagina Smooth muscle with a mucous membrane lining Approximately 10 centimeters or about 4 inches long Also known as the birth canal Hymen External opening of the vagina may be covered by a perforated membrane Structures of the female reproductive system 4.05 Remember the Structures of the Reproductive System

  10. 4 areas of the External genitalia Vulva External organs of reproduction Labia Folds of skin that surround the vagina Labia majora Labia minora Structures of the female reproductive system 4.05 Remember the Structures of the Reproductive System

  11. External genitalia Clitoris Erectile tissue Perineum Area between the vagina and rectum Structures of the female reproductive system 4.05 Remember the Structures of the Reproductive System

  12. Structures of the female reproductive system Ovary Check your knowledge... Fallopian tube Uterus Clitoris Cervix Vagina 4.05 Remember the Structures of the Reproductive System

  13. Mammary glands (breasts) Consists of 15 or 20 lobes of granular and adipose tissue Areola Darkened area that surrounds the nipple Structures of the female reproductive system 4.05 Remember the Structures of the Reproductive System

  14. Understand the functions and disorders of the female reproductive system

  15. Essential questions • What are the functions of the female reproductive system? • What are some common disorders of the female reproductive system? • How do you relate the body’s hormone control to the female reproductive system? • How do you relate the body’s use of nutrients to the female reproductive system? 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  16. Ovary  The female gonad The ovaries are the main source of female hormones, which control the development of female body characteristics, such as the breasts, body shape, and body hair. They also regulate the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. Each ovary is about the size and shape of an almond. The ovaries produce eggs (ova) and female hormones. Functions of the female reproductive system How many chromosomes are in an oocyte? Did you know a female will produce all of the oocytes she will ever have five months before she is born?

  17. Fallopian tubes The ends of the fallopian tubes lying next to the ovaries feather into ends called fimbria (Latin for "fringes" or "fingers"). Millions of tiny hair-like cilia line the fimbria and fallopian tubes. The cilia beat in waves hundreds of times a second catching the egg at ovulation and moving it through the tube to the uterine cavity. Functions of the female reproductive system 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  18. Uterus  also called the “womb” an inverted, pear-shaped muscular organ located between the bladder and rectum It functions to nourish and house the fertilized egg until the unborn child is ready to be delivered. Functions of the female reproductive system 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  19. Cervix The narrow opening of the cervix is called the os - allows menstrual blood to flow out from the vagina during menstruation. During pregnancy the cervical os closes to help keep the fetus in the uterus until birth. Another important function of the cervix occurs during labor when the cervix dilates, or widens, to allow the passage of the fetus from the uterus to the vagina. Functions of the female reproductive system What instrument is used to observe the cervix? 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  20. Vagina The vagina has muscular walls that are supplied with numerous blood vessels. These walls become erect when a woman is aroused as extra blood is pumped into these vessels. The vagina has three functions: as a receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse As an outlet for blood during menstruation As a passageway for the baby to pass through at birth. Functions of the female reproductive system 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  21. External genitalia Provide protection for the internal female reproductive organs Functions of the female reproductive system 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  22. Mammary glands Breasts -What is an accessory organ? The mammary gland is a milk-producing structure that is composed largely of fat cells  Within the mammary gland there is a complex network of branching ducts (tubes or channels). These ducts exit from sac-like structures called lobules. The lobules in the breast are the glands that can produce milk in females when they receive the appropriate hormonal stimulation. Functions of the female reproductive system 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  23. Functions of the female reproductive system • Menstrual Cycle • Usually 28 days • Four stages • Follicle stage • Ovulation stage • Corpus luteum stage • Menstruation stage What is the first menstrual cycle called? 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  24. 1. Follicle stage Usually lasts about 10 days Follicle-stimulating (FSH) hormone is released by the pituitary FSH stimulates the follicle and ovum to mature Resulting in the release of estrogen and preparation of the uterine lining Functions of the female reproductive system 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  25. 2. Ovulation stage The pituitary stops producing FSH and starts producing luteinizing hormone (LH) At day 14 in the menstrual cycle, the follicle ruptures and the ovum is released Functions of the female reproductive system 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  26. 3. Corpus luteum stage Secretes progesterone and continues to do so if the egg is fertilized, preventing further ovulation and maintaining the uterine lining Lasts about 14 days Functions of the female reproductive system Which hormone is secreted by the implanted fertilized egg? 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  27. 4. Menstruation stage Final stage if fertilization of the ova has not taken place The corpus luteum diminishes progesterone production The uterine lining is broken down and discharged over the course of 3 to 6 days Functions of the female reproductive system 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  28. Functions of the female reproductive system Check your knowledge... 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  29. Breast cancer The leading cause of death in woman between the ages of 32 and 52 Treatment Chemotherapy Radiation therapy Partial or full mastectomy Lumpectomy Life saving measures Monthly breast exams Mammogram Ultrasound Disorders of the female reproductive system Abnormal Normal 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  30. Using a mirror, inspect your breasts with your arms at your sides Look for any changes in contour, swelling, dimpling of skin, or appearance of the nipple. Using the pads of your fingers, press firmly on your breast, checking the entire breast and armpit area. There are three patterns you can use to examine your breast: the circular, the up-and-down, and the wedge patterns. Gently squeeze the nipple of each breast and report any discharge to your doctor immediately. Examine both breasts lying down. To examine the right breast, place a pillow under your right shoulder and place your right hand behind your head. Using the pads of your fingers, press firmly, checking the entire breast and armpit area. Disorders of the female reproductive system Self breast exam 1 4 2 5 3 6 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  31. Cervical Cancer Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that is spread through sexual intercourse. There are many different types of HPV. Some strains lead to cervical cancer. Other strains may cause genital warts, while others do not cause any problems at all A woman's sexual habits increase her risk for cervical cancer. Risky sexual practices include having sex at an early age, having multiple sexual partners, and having multiple partners or partners who participate in high-risk sexual activities. Disorders of the female reproductive system What are the benefits of receiving the HPV vaccine?

  32. Endometriosis a female health disorder that occurs when cells from the lining of the uterus grow in other areas of the body. This can lead to pain, irregular bleeding, and infertility Unlike the endometrial cells found in the uterus, the tissue implants outside the uterus stay in place when you get your period. They sometimes bleed. They grow again when you get your next period. This ongoing process leads to pain and other symptoms of endometriosis. Disorders of the female reproductive system 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  33. The cause of endometriosis is unknown. • One theory is that the endometrial cells shed when you get your period- travel backwards through the fallopian tubes into the pelvis, where they implant and grow. This backward menstrual flow occurs in many women, • Researchers think the immune system may be different in women with endometriosis. • Pain is the main symptom of endometriosis. A woman with endometriosis may have: • Painful periods • Cramps for a week or two before menstruation • Pain during or following sexual intercourse • Pain with bowel movements 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  34. Treatment for Endometriosis • Medications to control pain • Hormone medications to stop the endometriosis from getting worse • Surgery to remove the areas of endometriosis or the entire uterus and ovaries • Surgery may be recommended if you have severe pain that does not get better with other treatments. Surgery may include: • Pelvic laparoscopy or laparotomy to diagnose endometriosis and remove all endometrial implants and scar tissue (adhesions). • Hysterectomy to remove the uterus if you have severe symptoms and do not want to have children in the future. One or both ovaries and fallopian tubes may also be removed. 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  35. Mastitis Breast infections are usually caused by a common bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) found on normal skin. The bacteria enter through a break or crack in the skin, usually on the nipple. The infection takes place in the fatty tissue of the breast and causes swelling. This swelling pushes on the milk ducts. The result is pain and lumps in the infected breast. Breast infections usually occur in women who are breastfeeding. Rx = antibiotics and warm compress to breast Disorders of the female reproductive system 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  36. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) refers to infection of the uterus and fallopian tubes that causes symptoms such as lower abdominal pain. It is a serious complication of some STDs - especially chlamydia and gonorrhea. PID can lead to serious consequences including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, abscess formation, and chronic pelvic pain. Sexually active women in their childbearing years are most at risk, and those under age 25 are more likely to develop PID. This is partly because the cervix of teenage girls and young women is not fully matured, increasing their susceptibility to STDs. Disorders of the female reproductive system 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  37. PID can be cured with several types of antibiotics. However, antibiotic treatment does not reverse any damage that has already occurred to the reproductive organs. • If a woman has pelvic pain, fever, unusual vaginal discharge that has a foul odor, painful intercourse, painful urination and irregular menstrual bleeding, it is critical that she seek care immediately!

  38. Polycystic ovary syndrome is a problem in which a woman’s hormones are out of balance. It can cause problems with your periods and make it difficult to get pregnant. PCOS may also cause unwanted changes in the way you look. If it is not treated, over time it can lead to serious health problems, such as diabetes and heart disease. Disorders of the female reproductive system 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  39. The most common symptoms are: • Acne. • Weight gain and trouble losing weight. • Extra hair on the face and body. Often women get thicker and darker facial hair and more hair on the chest, belly, and back. • Thinning hair on the scalp. • Irregular periods. Often women with PCOS have fewer than nine periods a year. Some women have no periods. Others have very heavy bleeding. • Fertility problems. Many women who have PCOS have trouble getting pregnant. • Depression. • A doctor might try birth control pills or another hormone pill called progesterone to help control hormone levels and regulate the menstrual cycle. Birth control pills may help control acne and excessive hair growth in some girls.

  40. Toxic shock syndrome Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by Staphylococcus bacteria. Although the earliest cases of toxic shock syndrome involved women who were using tampons during their periods - today less than half of current cases are associated with such events. Toxic shock syndrome can also occur with skin infections, burns, and after surgery. The condition can also affect children, postmenopausal women, and men. Disorders of the female reproductive system 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  41. Risk factors include: • Recently having a baby • Staph infection • packings (such as those used to stop nosebleeds) • Menstruation • Surgery • Tampon use (particularly if you leave one in for a long time) • Wound infection after surgery • Symptoms • Confusion • Diarrhea • General ill-feeling / aches • Headaches and High fever • Low blood pressure • Nausea and vomiting • Organ failure (usually kidneys and liver) • Red eyes, mouth, throat • Seizures • Widespread red rash- like a sunburn -- skin peeling occurs 1 or 2 weeks after the rash, particularly on the palms of the hand or bottom of the feet 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  42. Treatment for Toxic Shock Syndrome • Treatment • Any foreign materials, such as tampons, vaginal sponges, or nasal packing, will be removed. Sites of infection (such as a surgical wound) will be drained. • Antibiotics for any infection • Dialysis (if severe kidney problems are present) • Fluids through a vein (IV) • Medicines to control blood pressure • Staying in the hospital intensive care unit (ICU) for monitoring • Expectations (prognosis) • Toxic shock syndrome may be deadly in up to 50% of cases. The condition may return in those that survive. 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  43. Vaginal yeast infection What is the cause? Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. May be the result of taking antibiotics. Antibiotics change the normal balance between germs in the vagina by decreasing the number of protective bacteria. Disorders of the female reproductive system Not a sexually transmitted illness. However, sexual partners may be infected and need to be treated to prevent re-infection. 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  44. To help prevent and treat vaginal discharge: • Keep your genital area clean and dry. • Avoid douching because it removes healthy bacteria lining the vagina that protect against infection. • Eat yogurt with live cultures when you are on antibiotics to prevent a yeast infection. • Use condoms to avoid catching or spreading sexually transmitted infection (STI). • Avoid using feminine hygiene sprays or powders in the genital area. • Avoid wearing extremely tight-fitting pants or shorts • Wear cotton underwear. Avoid silk or nylon, because these materials are not absorbent and restrict air flow. This can increase sweating in the genital area. • Use pads and not tampons. • Keep your blood sugar levels under good control if you have diabetes.

  45. How to treat a vaginal yeast infection: • Medications to treat vaginal yeast infections are available in either creams or suppositories. Most can be bought without a prescription. • Medications you can buy yourself to treat a vaginal yeast infection are: • Miconazole • Clotrimazole • Tioconazol • You doctor can also prescribe a medicine called fluconazole. This medicine is a pill that you only take once. 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  46. The female reproductive system plays a vital role in homeostasis Help regulate hormonal balance and fetal development during pregnancy Relevance of nutrients to the female reproductive system Did you know??? Vitamin D- prevents osteoporosis Iron- helps hemoglobin deliver oxygen Magnesium- helps prevent heart disease, diabetes, and colon cancer 4.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the reproductive system

  47. Structures of the male reproductive system 4.05 Remember the Structures of the Reproductive System

  48. Structures of the male reproductive system • Scrotum Sac of skin that contains the testes 4.05 Remember the Structures of the Reproductive System

  49. Structures of the male reproductive system • Testes (two) Primary reproductive organ About the size of an egg Contained within the testes are the : • Seminiferous tubules • Each testis contains 1-4 minute, convoluted tubules • Epididymis • Coiled duct on the posterior and lateral part of the testes 4.05 Remember the Structures of the Reproductive System

  50. Structures of the male reproductive system • Sperm The male gamete (sex cell) • sperm can live for up to five days depending on the conditions • The average ejaculation contains close to 100 million sperm Smallest cell in the human body. 4.05 Remember the Structures of the Reproductive System