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Cultures and Languages Across the Curriculum. The State of the Movement. Dr. Robert Sanders Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures Portland State University November 2005. CLAC: The State of the Movement. Findings of the 2005 CLAC Conference Hosted by the University of Iowa

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Cultures and Languages Across the Curriculum


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    1. Cultures and Languages Across the Curriculum The State of the Movement Dr. Robert Sanders Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures Portland State University November 2005

    2. CLAC: The State of the Movement Findings of the 2005 CLAC Conference Hosted by the University of Iowa In collaboration with ACE and Binghamton University - SUNY

    3. Contents • Conference Description • CLAC • Definition and goals • Learners and mission • Obstacles • Program models and integration • Keynote Address • Case Studies • Closing Forum: Next Steps • Appendix: Speaker presentations

    4. Conference and Participants A conference on program design, implementation, implications, and best practices for integrating cultures and languages throughout curriculums in K-16 institutions This conference builds on the dialogue of the Fall 2002 and Fall 2004 Conferences on Languages Across the Curriculum held at Binghamton University – SUNY. • K-12 educators • College and university educators • Business leaders • Government representatives for education and defense • Film producer

    5. CLAC • CLAC adds cultural competence to Languages Across the Curriculum (LAC) • Diverse program designs with… • Common goals • Common obstacles

    6. CLAC Learning Goals • Cultural awareness (not just “big C”) • Appreciation of different cultural perspectives • Awareness of the specificities of knowledge production in other cultures • Disciplines include contributions from multiple national languages or cultures. • Ability to interpret, analyze, and synthesize knowledge produced in other cultures • Flexible cross-cultural navigation strategies

    7. The CLAC Learner • May be a “Metropolitan Migrant” • Will have multiple careers • Will be creative • Will interact with multiple cultures • May have a diverse cultural heritage • Is aware of her/his values • Needs flexible adaptation and growth strategies

    8. The CLAC Mission • To train within all disciplines, globally competent graduates able to • acquire cultural and linguistic expertise in a relatively short period of time, in response to global developments, and • act as cultural intermediaries in increasingly diverse societies.

    9. Obstacles to CLAC • Ignorance of LAC and CLAC goals and methodologies • Competition, instead of cooperation, between CLAC and other academic initiatives • Inadequate background cultural knowledge and linguistic proficiency (whether obtained in family or school setting) • Lack of widespread faculty preparation for the demands of CLAC • Foreign/Modern Language faculty workloads: an un-funded mandate?

    10. Foreign/ Modern Language Models • Basic language requirement • Expert language and/or literature curriculum • Expert “area studies” programs • Heritage enhancement • Study abroad • Community-Based Learning • Foreign languages for special purposes (social work, business, police, etc.) • Cultures and Languages Across the Curriculum

    11. CLAC Approaches • “Add-on” programs, peripheral to disciplines and to the institution vs. Integrated programs, essential to all disciplines • Traditional or “language-specific” programs (e.g. LAC CHEM: Study Group in Spanish) vs. Broad approach to culture and language, courses not limited to specific national languages and practices

    12. CLAC Models • The comfort model: Faculty do what they’re comfortable with (see LAC at Baldwin – Wallace) • CLAC electives model: 1-credit electives to accompany any related course (see FLAC at the University of Florida and LAC at The University of Richmond)

    13. CLAC Models continued • Student-centered model: Students study languages and cultures for their own purposes (see DULAP at Drake) • Languages and Cultures for Professions: Professional courses in various languages (see LCP at Iowa State)

    14. CLAC Models continued • Service Learning model: At home or in situ programs (see SL at Central College, Pella, Iowa) • Study Abroad with focus on professions (see Business and Engineering Abroad)

    15. CLAC Models continued • Virtual Study Abroad: Communications and collaboration via internet (see Virtual Study Abroad at Iowa State) • Immersion Exchange: Partner Institutions. Teacher and Student Exchanges (see Keynote Address)

    16. Business Perspectives on Internationalization • Bill Aossey, CEO Middle America Agriculture Research Corp (Iowa). First Muslim member of the Peace Corps • Perspectives on diversity, security, culturally aware professionalism • Kit Spangler, CEO Ten Square International (Iowa): import/export and outsourcing • Community must understand internationalization to support college initiatives • Need for professional language courses for adults

    17. ACE: An Integrated Approach to Internationalization Christa Olson, ACE • Language requirements are broad but shallow; language majors are deep but narrow; the middle spectrum is missing • Transformational (i.e. broad, deep) change will require a sustained 5-to-10-year intentional effort • The ACE dual process of internationalization: • Learning Outcomes and Assessment • Internationalization Review

    18. UISFL Title VI-A Grants Christine Corey, US Dept. of Education • Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Grants • Annual competition - early November deadline • Average institutional grant: 78k • Primarily supports faculty development and curriculum development activities resulting in an enhanced international studies, area studies and foreign language program. • Currently not valid for travel to internships

    19. Keynote Address Multilingua-Culturality for All H. Stephen Straight Binghamton University – SUNY

    20. Multilingua-Culturality for All H. Stephen Straight • 45-year history of FL enrollments (pre 9-11) • Rise of Spanish • Fall of traditional national languages • Growth of “less commonly taught” languages • Success of 5 Cs in K-12 and their rejection or neglect in post-secondary may be hurting post-sec enrollments • Correspondence of 5 Cs to CLAC • World language demographics (1 language dies each week, in 20 years Asian languages will come to dominate the internet)

    21. Multilingua-Culturality continued • 45-year history of FL missions (pre 9-11) • General Education • Specialization • Heritage • Application • Post 9-11 • Radically increased government spending on FL training and skill maintenance • Civil Linguistic Reserve Corps?

    22. Multilingua-Culturality continued • CLAC • Conforms to the 5 Cs • Responds to post 9-11 policy directives • Proposal: Bilingual Immersion • Alternating years of language delivery • Paired institutions • Teaching exchange • Dual diplomas • Original research in both languages • Note: Over 100 high schools in Madrid will use English as the language of instruction this year

    23. Case Studies

    24. ALLNet: Autonomous Learning for Less-Commonly Taught Languages Elena Osinsky • Building on and integrating Language Resource Center materials • Tutors: • Educated Target Language speakers • Trained to NASILP guidelines (National Association of Self-Instruction Language Programs) • Provide language practice • Monitor student progress • Internet video and text conferencing

    25. Bilingual Immersion: The Children’s Experience Marcia Jarmel • Speaking in Tongues - an independent film for public broadcast • Focuses on the experiences of 3 children • Chinese – English immersion in San Francisco • Public elementary school, 10 years old • 20 year old immersion program

    26. Bilingual Immersion continued • Heritage and non-heritage students • Most desired school in district lottery • Produces speakers with native accent and fluency • Tests highest in English and Math among 75 local public elementary schools • Attracts middle-class to public schools

    27. Business, and Engineering Abroad: Spanish at Iowa State Domínguez, Gasta, L’Hote and Van Vauck • Summer program in Alicante, Spain • 12 courses in Spanish for Spanish major • 2 CLAC courses, in English: • Management 310: Entrepreneurship in Spain and the EU • BUS Admin 291/491: Business and Engineering in Spain & EU • Applicable to major electives

    28. Business and Engineering Abroad continued • Purpose • Strengthen Languages and Cultures for Professions (LCP) 2nd major option in Business and Engineering • Student incentives: • All in-state tuition • Tuition reduced by 90% for all students • Intensive beginning Spanish courses available

    29. Business and Engineering Abroad continued • Management 310: Entrepreneurship in Spain and the EU • Students distinguish between business ideas and business opportunities. • Students understand the process through which business ideas are evaluated. • Students determine the feasibility of new venture opportunities. • Students assess their entrepreneurial spirit and potential.

    30. Business and Engineering Abroad continued • Bus Admin 291/491: Business in Spain and the EU • Students understand the differences in environmental conditions for business in Spain and the European Union. • Students understand the effect of different cultures on business practices. • Students understand the importance of tourism in generating foreign exchange.

    31. Business and Engineering Abroad continued • Site visits: • Alicante Chamber of Commerce • Alicante Office for Tourism • Hotel Hesperia Golf • Small Business Models: Pub “Ay, Carmela” and “Discoteca 37” • “Ajusa” Factory and Headquarters (major toy manufacturer) • Vins de Comtat (winery) • “La Lonja:” Fisherman’s Warf and commercial auction house.

    32. Business and Engineering Abroad continued • Guest lectures • European Perspective on Entrepreneurship • Managerial Practices in Spain in the European Union Context • In-store Marketing: The Spanish Case • Legal Forms of a Business in Spain • European Union and Spanish Economy • Exchange rates and Euro

    33. Business and Engineering Abroad continued • 86 participants in 2005 • Most ENG and BUS majors (74%) already had intermediate or advanced language skills. • 34% report that availability of courses for the major did not affect choice to participate. • Many Business and Engineering students continued Spanish study beyond program. • 25% report they may change majors as a result of program.

    34. Content-Based Instruction for Heritage Japanese High School Students Masako Nunn, CSU-Channel Islands • Topics need to be directly related to student interests • Learning goals need to be identified by students • Materials and instruction need to be of appropriate level • Motivation affected by all of the above

    35. DULAP: Drake University Language Acquisition Program Jan Marston • No university language requirement • No FL “faculty” or instructors • Student-directed program: • Students identify goals • Students choose resources and methods • Students write study plan • Students produce artifacts (portfolio) for assessment according to their goals

    36. DULAP continued • All FL students required to take 1-credit FL methods course • International speakers contracted as “language partners” for student contact • Portfolio and exams assessed by external experts (contracted) • CLAC emerging organically • CLAC internships • Pharmacy and Nursing in France

    37. FLAC at the University of Florida Greg Moreland • 10 years of FLAC • 1-credit courses accompany any related course (most UF courses are 3 credits) • Topics range from application (e.g. Business German) to culture (e.g. Great Cities of the World) • Count towards the majors and minors

    38. FLAC at the University of Florida continued • About 12 courses per year • Courses can be taken 3 times (most UF courses are 3 credits) • Taught by graduate students (PhD) or faculty • Faculty incentives • About $1500 for prep • About $1000 for a delivery assistant • About $3000 to teach course

    39. K-8 FL Culture, Content, and Language Carol Ann Dahlberg • Challenges to Teaching Culture in K-8 • “No Child Left Behind” • Teachers lack experience with target culture • Lack of age-appropriate materials • Content focus takes time away from culture • Teachers get about 30 minutes for culture

    40. K-8 FL continued • “Culture-free” teaching strategies: • TPR: Total Physical Response • TPRS: Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling

    41. K-8 FL continued • A pre - 5 Cs framework for curriculum and assessment: • Language in Use • Subject content • Culture • Organized thematically • Articulate well with 5 Cs

    42. LAC at Baldwin – Wallace College Judy Krutky • Won UISFL Grant • 2002-03 Consultation and field visits • 2003-04 9 profs, 10 courses • 2004-05 10 profs, 26 courses • Fall Faculty Conference Presentation • Faculty Language Proficiency Survey • New faculty position: LAC Coordinator • Recognition luncheon for LAC students • LAC faculty interest survey • 2005-06 Sustainability and expansion issues arise

    43. LAC at Baldwin – Wallace Continued • Instructors worked at their own comfort level within existing courses • Language options for courses listed in schedule • Considerable student direction

    44. LAC at the University of Richmond Robert Graboyes • Started with French Statistics • 1 unit courses accompany any related course • Sustainability problems • Dropped single-course model

    45. LAC at the University of Richmond continued • Adopted content areas: • CORE (Gen Ed or Freshman Experience) • Political and Social Science • Arts and literatures • Science and health • Business Administration • Leadership studies

    46. LAC at the University of Richmond continued • Improvised student teachers • International students (in leadership roles) • Native speakers • Advanced non-natives • Students studying abroad (via internet)

    47. LAC at the University of Richmond continued • Coordination challenges: • Publicity • Hiring • Sorting students into viable classes • Timing classes • Monitoring

    48. LCP: Languages and Cultures for Professions at Iowa State Mark Rectanus • Won UISFL Grant • Connecting FL courses to Area Studies courses (similar to University Studies clusters) • Example: Business students in Business German research a German firm, prepare a letter of application and cv (portfolio) • Students are taught to locate their own internships • 5 year development and implementation plan • Sustainable funding plan

    49. LCP at Iowa State continued • Target Language Modules (optional or required) • TL or cultural content course sections • Area Studies TL certificates • Team teaching • Forum courses: • External and internal guest speakers • UD, graduate, and professional students combined • Project oriented • Internet delivery options

    50. Online CLAC Modules at Yale University Nina Garrett and Mark Knowles • Development of Content-Based online, interactive materials • Currently limited to Yale’s proprietary online delivery system • Soon to be SAKAI compatible