Cultures and Languages Across the Curriculum. The State of the Movement. Dr. Robert Sanders Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures Portland State University November 2005. CLAC: The State of the Movement. Findings of the 2005 CLAC Conference Hosted by the University of Iowa
Cultures and Languages Across the Curriculum The State of the Movement Dr. Robert Sanders Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures Portland State University November 2005
CLAC: The State of the Movement Findings of the 2005 CLAC Conference Hosted by the University of Iowa In collaboration with ACE and Binghamton University - SUNY
Contents • Conference Description • CLAC • Definition and goals • Learners and mission • Obstacles • Program models and integration • Keynote Address • Case Studies • Closing Forum: Next Steps • Appendix: Speaker presentations
Conference and Participants A conference on program design, implementation, implications, and best practices for integrating cultures and languages throughout curriculums in K-16 institutions This conference builds on the dialogue of the Fall 2002 and Fall 2004 Conferences on Languages Across the Curriculum held at Binghamton University – SUNY. • K-12 educators • College and university educators • Business leaders • Government representatives for education and defense • Film producer
CLAC • CLAC adds cultural competence to Languages Across the Curriculum (LAC) • Diverse program designs with… • Common goals • Common obstacles
CLAC Learning Goals • Cultural awareness (not just “big C”) • Appreciation of different cultural perspectives • Awareness of the specificities of knowledge production in other cultures • Disciplines include contributions from multiple national languages or cultures. • Ability to interpret, analyze, and synthesize knowledge produced in other cultures • Flexible cross-cultural navigation strategies
The CLAC Learner • May be a “Metropolitan Migrant” • Will have multiple careers • Will be creative • Will interact with multiple cultures • May have a diverse cultural heritage • Is aware of her/his values • Needs flexible adaptation and growth strategies
The CLAC Mission • To train within all disciplines, globally competent graduates able to • acquire cultural and linguistic expertise in a relatively short period of time, in response to global developments, and • act as cultural intermediaries in increasingly diverse societies.
Obstacles to CLAC • Ignorance of LAC and CLAC goals and methodologies • Competition, instead of cooperation, between CLAC and other academic initiatives • Inadequate background cultural knowledge and linguistic proficiency (whether obtained in family or school setting) • Lack of widespread faculty preparation for the demands of CLAC • Foreign/Modern Language faculty workloads: an un-funded mandate?
Foreign/ Modern Language Models • Basic language requirement • Expert language and/or literature curriculum • Expert “area studies” programs • Heritage enhancement • Study abroad • Community-Based Learning • Foreign languages for special purposes (social work, business, police, etc.) • Cultures and Languages Across the Curriculum
CLAC Approaches • “Add-on” programs, peripheral to disciplines and to the institution vs. Integrated programs, essential to all disciplines • Traditional or “language-specific” programs (e.g. LAC CHEM: Study Group in Spanish) vs. Broad approach to culture and language, courses not limited to specific national languages and practices
CLAC Models • The comfort model: Faculty do what they’re comfortable with (see LAC at Baldwin – Wallace) • CLAC electives model: 1-credit electives to accompany any related course (see FLAC at the University of Florida and LAC at The University of Richmond)
CLAC Models continued • Student-centered model: Students study languages and cultures for their own purposes (see DULAP at Drake) • Languages and Cultures for Professions: Professional courses in various languages (see LCP at Iowa State)
CLAC Models continued • Service Learning model: At home or in situ programs (see SL at Central College, Pella, Iowa) • Study Abroad with focus on professions (see Business and Engineering Abroad)
CLAC Models continued • Virtual Study Abroad: Communications and collaboration via internet (see Virtual Study Abroad at Iowa State) • Immersion Exchange: Partner Institutions. Teacher and Student Exchanges (see Keynote Address)
Business Perspectives on Internationalization • Bill Aossey, CEO Middle America Agriculture Research Corp (Iowa). First Muslim member of the Peace Corps • Perspectives on diversity, security, culturally aware professionalism • Kit Spangler, CEO Ten Square International (Iowa): import/export and outsourcing • Community must understand internationalization to support college initiatives • Need for professional language courses for adults
ACE: An Integrated Approach to Internationalization Christa Olson, ACE • Language requirements are broad but shallow; language majors are deep but narrow; the middle spectrum is missing • Transformational (i.e. broad, deep) change will require a sustained 5-to-10-year intentional effort • The ACE dual process of internationalization: • Learning Outcomes and Assessment • Internationalization Review
UISFL Title VI-A Grants Christine Corey, US Dept. of Education • Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Grants • Annual competition - early November deadline • Average institutional grant: 78k • Primarily supports faculty development and curriculum development activities resulting in an enhanced international studies, area studies and foreign language program. • Currently not valid for travel to internships
Keynote Address Multilingua-Culturality for All H. Stephen Straight Binghamton University – SUNY
Multilingua-Culturality for All H. Stephen Straight • 45-year history of FL enrollments (pre 9-11) • Rise of Spanish • Fall of traditional national languages • Growth of “less commonly taught” languages • Success of 5 Cs in K-12 and their rejection or neglect in post-secondary may be hurting post-sec enrollments • Correspondence of 5 Cs to CLAC • World language demographics (1 language dies each week, in 20 years Asian languages will come to dominate the internet)
Multilingua-Culturality continued • 45-year history of FL missions (pre 9-11) • General Education • Specialization • Heritage • Application • Post 9-11 • Radically increased government spending on FL training and skill maintenance • Civil Linguistic Reserve Corps?
Multilingua-Culturality continued • CLAC • Conforms to the 5 Cs • Responds to post 9-11 policy directives • Proposal: Bilingual Immersion • Alternating years of language delivery • Paired institutions • Teaching exchange • Dual diplomas • Original research in both languages • Note: Over 100 high schools in Madrid will use English as the language of instruction this year
ALLNet: Autonomous Learning for Less-Commonly Taught Languages Elena Osinsky • Building on and integrating Language Resource Center materials • Tutors: • Educated Target Language speakers • Trained to NASILP guidelines (National Association of Self-Instruction Language Programs) • Provide language practice • Monitor student progress • Internet video and text conferencing
Bilingual Immersion: The Children’s Experience Marcia Jarmel • Speaking in Tongues - an independent film for public broadcast • Focuses on the experiences of 3 children • Chinese – English immersion in San Francisco • Public elementary school, 10 years old • 20 year old immersion program
Bilingual Immersion continued • Heritage and non-heritage students • Most desired school in district lottery • Produces speakers with native accent and fluency • Tests highest in English and Math among 75 local public elementary schools • Attracts middle-class to public schools
Business, and Engineering Abroad: Spanish at Iowa State Domínguez, Gasta, L’Hote and Van Vauck • Summer program in Alicante, Spain • 12 courses in Spanish for Spanish major • 2 CLAC courses, in English: • Management 310: Entrepreneurship in Spain and the EU • BUS Admin 291/491: Business and Engineering in Spain & EU • Applicable to major electives
Business and Engineering Abroad continued • Purpose • Strengthen Languages and Cultures for Professions (LCP) 2nd major option in Business and Engineering • Student incentives: • All in-state tuition • Tuition reduced by 90% for all students • Intensive beginning Spanish courses available
Business and Engineering Abroad continued • Management 310: Entrepreneurship in Spain and the EU • Students distinguish between business ideas and business opportunities. • Students understand the process through which business ideas are evaluated. • Students determine the feasibility of new venture opportunities. • Students assess their entrepreneurial spirit and potential.
Business and Engineering Abroad continued • Bus Admin 291/491: Business in Spain and the EU • Students understand the differences in environmental conditions for business in Spain and the European Union. • Students understand the effect of different cultures on business practices. • Students understand the importance of tourism in generating foreign exchange.
Business and Engineering Abroad continued • Site visits: • Alicante Chamber of Commerce • Alicante Office for Tourism • Hotel Hesperia Golf • Small Business Models: Pub “Ay, Carmela” and “Discoteca 37” • “Ajusa” Factory and Headquarters (major toy manufacturer) • Vins de Comtat (winery) • “La Lonja:” Fisherman’s Warf and commercial auction house.
Business and Engineering Abroad continued • Guest lectures • European Perspective on Entrepreneurship • Managerial Practices in Spain in the European Union Context • In-store Marketing: The Spanish Case • Legal Forms of a Business in Spain • European Union and Spanish Economy • Exchange rates and Euro
Business and Engineering Abroad continued • 86 participants in 2005 • Most ENG and BUS majors (74%) already had intermediate or advanced language skills. • 34% report that availability of courses for the major did not affect choice to participate. • Many Business and Engineering students continued Spanish study beyond program. • 25% report they may change majors as a result of program.
Content-Based Instruction for Heritage Japanese High School Students Masako Nunn, CSU-Channel Islands • Topics need to be directly related to student interests • Learning goals need to be identified by students • Materials and instruction need to be of appropriate level • Motivation affected by all of the above
DULAP: Drake University Language Acquisition Program Jan Marston • No university language requirement • No FL “faculty” or instructors • Student-directed program: • Students identify goals • Students choose resources and methods • Students write study plan • Students produce artifacts (portfolio) for assessment according to their goals
DULAP continued • All FL students required to take 1-credit FL methods course • International speakers contracted as “language partners” for student contact • Portfolio and exams assessed by external experts (contracted) • CLAC emerging organically • CLAC internships • Pharmacy and Nursing in France
FLAC at the University of Florida Greg Moreland • 10 years of FLAC • 1-credit courses accompany any related course (most UF courses are 3 credits) • Topics range from application (e.g. Business German) to culture (e.g. Great Cities of the World) • Count towards the majors and minors
FLAC at the University of Florida continued • About 12 courses per year • Courses can be taken 3 times (most UF courses are 3 credits) • Taught by graduate students (PhD) or faculty • Faculty incentives • About $1500 for prep • About $1000 for a delivery assistant • About $3000 to teach course
K-8 FL Culture, Content, and Language Carol Ann Dahlberg • Challenges to Teaching Culture in K-8 • “No Child Left Behind” • Teachers lack experience with target culture • Lack of age-appropriate materials • Content focus takes time away from culture • Teachers get about 30 minutes for culture
K-8 FL continued • “Culture-free” teaching strategies: • TPR: Total Physical Response • TPRS: Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling
K-8 FL continued • A pre - 5 Cs framework for curriculum and assessment: • Language in Use • Subject content • Culture • Organized thematically • Articulate well with 5 Cs
LAC at Baldwin – Wallace College Judy Krutky • Won UISFL Grant • 2002-03 Consultation and field visits • 2003-04 9 profs, 10 courses • 2004-05 10 profs, 26 courses • Fall Faculty Conference Presentation • Faculty Language Proficiency Survey • New faculty position: LAC Coordinator • Recognition luncheon for LAC students • LAC faculty interest survey • 2005-06 Sustainability and expansion issues arise
LAC at Baldwin – Wallace Continued • Instructors worked at their own comfort level within existing courses • Language options for courses listed in schedule • Considerable student direction
LAC at the University of Richmond Robert Graboyes • Started with French Statistics • 1 unit courses accompany any related course • Sustainability problems • Dropped single-course model
LAC at the University of Richmond continued • Adopted content areas: • CORE (Gen Ed or Freshman Experience) • Political and Social Science • Arts and literatures • Science and health • Business Administration • Leadership studies
LAC at the University of Richmond continued • Improvised student teachers • International students (in leadership roles) • Native speakers • Advanced non-natives • Students studying abroad (via internet)
LAC at the University of Richmond continued • Coordination challenges: • Publicity • Hiring • Sorting students into viable classes • Timing classes • Monitoring
LCP: Languages and Cultures for Professions at Iowa State Mark Rectanus • Won UISFL Grant • Connecting FL courses to Area Studies courses (similar to University Studies clusters) • Example: Business students in Business German research a German firm, prepare a letter of application and cv (portfolio) • Students are taught to locate their own internships • 5 year development and implementation plan • Sustainable funding plan
LCP at Iowa State continued • Target Language Modules (optional or required) • TL or cultural content course sections • Area Studies TL certificates • Team teaching • Forum courses: • External and internal guest speakers • UD, graduate, and professional students combined • Project oriented • Internet delivery options
Online CLAC Modules at Yale University Nina Garrett and Mark Knowles • Development of Content-Based online, interactive materials • Currently limited to Yale’s proprietary online delivery system • Soon to be SAKAI compatible