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Technology, Society, Education, the Workplace and Religion. Exploring the Times By Tia McMillan. Color Code Key. 4 Waves Technology Workplace Education Society & Culture Religion. 8000 BC - 1910. Toffler’s First Wave, Agricultural Age, lasted through 1750 1

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color code key
Color Code Key

4 Waves

Technology

Workplace

Education

Society & Culture

Religion

8000 bc 1910
8000 BC - 1910
  • Toffler’s First Wave, Agricultural Age, lasted through 17501
  • Toffler’s Second Wave, Industrial Age, lasted through 19551
  • 1903 E. L.Thorndike’s Law of Effect3
  • 1904 Industrial Workers of the World organized7
  • 1905 St . Louis Educational Museum became 1st unit of instructional media in public school2
  • 1906 First visual instruction guide called Visual Education published2
  • 1906 Azusa Street revival4
  • 1907 First application of the Montessori Methods2
  • 1907 National Child Labor Committee organized6
  • 1908 First workers compensation law passed8
  • 1908 First principles of scientific management published in F. W. Taylor’s Principles of Scientific Management9
  • 1908 Jews granted full legal equality in Ottoman Empire5

8000 BC

1750

1900

1910

References

1910 1924
1910 - 1924
  • 1910 Start of the Great Migration11
  • 1912 F. Burk created the first system of individualized instruction8
  • 1913 H. Ford creates assembly line6
  • 1914 World War I begins (USA joined in 1917)8
  • 1914 Assemblies of God founded3
  • 1916 C. T. Russell, founder of the Jehovah's Witnesses, died4
  • 1917 Allen’s Show, Tell, Do, and Check method of job instruction5
  • 1918 W. H. Kilpatrick’s Project Method1
  • 1918 H. Gantt’s Gantt chart7
  • 1919 C. W. Washborne’s Winnetka Plan1
  • 1920 H. Parkhurst’s Dalton Plan adopted by a high school1
  • 1920 19th Amendment Ratified9; First regularly scheduled public radio broadcast10
  • 1921 First handbook on the mechanics of visual instruction called The Cinema Handbook1
  • 1921 M. Murray published “The Witch-Cult in Western Europe”2

1910

1920

1924

References

1924 1940
1924 - 1940
  • 1924 Teaching Machine created1
  • 1924 Hawthorne Effect studies began2
  • 1925 H. Fayol’s Unity of Command Theory3
  • 1925 C. Judd introducestesting and assessments4
  • 1926 Progressive Judaism founded5
  • 1930 Second national school of air launched on CBS6
  • 1931 The Movietone School Series was created6
  • 1931 J. F. Rutherford adopts the name "Jehovah's Witnesses" for the group7
  • 1932 K. Barth's Church Dogmatics8
  • 1932 E. L. Thorndike’s Connectionism Theory9
  • 1933 Worst point of Great Depression – a quarter of Americans unemployed10
  • 1935 Unemployment insurance began as a part of the Social Security Act11
  • 1938 C. H. Bernard’s Theory of Authority and Theory of Incentives12
  • 1938 B. F. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Theory13
  • 1938 First television for sale in US14

1924

1930

1940

References

1940 1955
1940 - 1955

1941 First educational training film completed and delivered to US Office of Education1

1941 Attack on Pearl Harbor2

1943 C. L. Hull’s Learning Rule Theory3

1946 First digital computer, ENIAC, introduced to the public4

1946 K. Lewin’s Field Theory5

1947 M. Weber’s Theory of Bureaucracy published in his book Theory of Social and Economic Organization6; H. A. Simon’s Theory of Corporate Decision Making published in his book Administrative Behavior7

1948 World Council of Churches founded8

1949 R. Tyler’sTyler Rationale1

1949 Buddhism suppressed by Chinese communist government9

1952 Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development10

1954 Theory of management by objectives created by Peter Drucker11

1954 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas 12

1940

1950

1955

References

1955 1965
1955 - 1965

1955

1955 Toffler’s 3rd Wave, Industrial Age1

1955 Federal Interstate Commerce Commission bans segregation on interstate buses and trains2

1956 B. Bloom’sTaxonomy3

1956 First issue of ChristianityToday4

1957 M. R. Walker‘s Critical Path Method (CMP)5

1957 B. F. Skinner’s 1st use of Programmed Instruction3

1959 The Dalai Lama goes into exile6

1959 D. L. Kirkpatrick’s 4 Levels of Evaluation7

1960 N. A. Crowder’s Programmed Instruction8

1960 M. Murray (later O'Hair) filed suit in the Baltimore to force the end of required Bible readings and recitations of the Lord's Prayer in public schools9

1960 PLATO (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) Project started3

1961 R. Likert’s Participative Management theory published in his book New Patterns of Management10

1962 R. Mager’s Behavioral Objectives3

1960

1965

References

1965 1975
1965 - 1975

1965

  • 1965 Flex Time begins in Germany movement began1
  • 1965 The first American combat troops arrived in Vietnam for war2
  • 1967 Jerusalem reunited by Israeli victory in Six-Day War3
  • 1968 F. S. Keller’s amplified Personalized System of Instruction published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis4
  • 1968 Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated5
  • 1970 The Mormon Church officially declared that blacks could not become priests6
  • 1971 E. DeBono’s Lateral Thinking Theory7
  • 1971 R. House’s Path-Goal Theory leadership8
  • 1972 R. Gagne’s Taxonomy of Five Learning Capabilities4
  • 1972 Watergate begins9
  • 1972 First female rabbi ordained in Reform movement3
  • 1972 MITRE Corporation and Brigham Young University started development of the Time-shared Interactive Computer Controlled Instructional Television (TICCIT) using the instructional philosophy Learner-Controlled Instruction (LCI)10
  • 1973 Abortion becomes legal11

1970

1975

References

1975 1990
1975 - 1990

1975

  • 1975 F. Dansereau, G. Graen, & C. Haga’s Leadership-Member Exchange Theory1
  • 1976 R. House’s Theory of charismatic leadership2
  • 1978 W. Dick and L. Carey’s ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Develop, Implement and Evaluation) model 3
  • 1980 M. Porter’s Competitive Strategy Theory4
  • 1981 New plague announced called AIDS5; Personal computers introduced by IBM5
  • 1982 First instructional television series called “ThinkAbout”6
  • 1983 H. Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences disclosed in his book Frames of Mind7
  • 1985 R. Gagne, Conditions of Learning revised to include 9 events of instruction8
  • 1988 J. S. Livingston’s Pygmalion Effect9
  • 1989 First Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS)10
  • 1989 First woman ordained in a Protestant Episcopal church11; International Network of Engaged Buddhists founded12

1980

1990

References

1990 2000
1990 - 2000

1990

  • 1990 J. Bradford and Cognition & Technology Group at Vanderbilt‘s (CTGV) Anchored Instruction Theory1
  • 1990 J. Kotter’s 8 Change Phase Model2
  • 1991 Apartheid laws abolished3
  • 1993 Fourth Wave, Communication Agei4
  • 1993 Assault on the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas5
  • 1995 L.Harasim, S. R. Hiltz, L. Teles and M. Turoff’s Learning Network Model6
  • 1995 Oklahoma bombings3
  • 1995 The Christian Coalition created the "Catholic Alliance," a "fully owned subsidiary" of the Christian Coalition designed to appeal to conservative Catholics5
  • 1996 R. House revised his Path-Goal Theory of Work Unit Leadership7
  • 1997 Anchored Interactive Learning Environment (AILE) created by combing Anchored Instruction and computer technology8
  • 1997 D.Chandler’s Schema Theory9

2000

References

2000 2008
2000 - 2008

2000

  • 2001 Destruction of standing Buddha statues at Bamiyan by Taliban regime1
  • 2001 Destruction of Twin Towers
  • 2002 "Reform Mormonism" founded 2
  • 2002 Integrated Blended Learning3; M. D. Merrill’s First Principles of Instruction4
  • 2003 Siemens launched the 1st unified communication application called OpenScape5
  • 2005 Project Zero’s Cultures of Thinking program6
  • 2006 Project Zero’s Artful Thinking Program is to help teachers regularly use works of visual art and music in their curriculum in ways that strengthen student thinking and learning7
  • 2007 Digital Video Enterprises announces the launch of Tele-Immersion Room which offers a surreal teleconferencing experience8
  • 2008 Election of 1st African American President

2008

References

references 8000bc 1910
References 8000BC - 1910
  • 1. Toffler, A. (1980). The third wave. New York: Bantam.
  • 2. Saettler, P. (2004). The evolution of American educational technology. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
  • 3. Learning Theory Timeline. (n.d.) Retrieved March 20, 2009 from http://hagar.up.ac.za/catts/learner/smarks/Learning_theory_timeline.html.
  • 4. Religious Facts: Just the facts on religion. (2009). Timeline of Christianity. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from
  • http://www.religionfacts.com/christianity/timeline.htm.
  • 5. Religious Facts: Just the facts on religion. (2009). Timeline of Judaism. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://www.religionfacts.com/judaism/timeline.htm.
  • 6. National Child Labor Committee. (2008). History of NCLC. Retrieved March 16, 2009 from http://www.nationalchildlabor.org/history.html.
  • 7. Labor Unions in the United States. (2008). In MSN Encarta online. Retrieved March 16, 2009 from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761576185_2/Labor_Unions_in_the_United_States.html
  • 8. Workers’ Compensation. (2008). In MSN Encarta Encyclopedia online. Retrieved March 16, 2009 from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761574391/Workers%E2%80%99_Compensation.html.
  • 9. Accel. (2008). Historical perspective on productivity improvement: scientific management and Frederick Winslow Taylor. Retrieved March 18, 2009 from http://www.accel-team.com/scientific/scientific_02.html.

Return to 8000BC-1910

references 1910 1924
References 1910 - 1924

1. Saettler, P. (2004). The evolution of American educational technology. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

2. Religious Facts: Just the facts on religion. (2009). Timeline of neopaganism, wicca and witchcraft. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://www.religionfacts.com/neopaganism/timeline.htm.

3. Religious Facts: Just the facts on religion. (2009). Timeline of christianity. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from

http://www.religionfacts.com/christianity/timeline.htm.

4. Religious Facts: Just the facts on religion. (2009). Timeline of jehovah's witnesses. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://www.religionfacts.com/jehovahs_witnesses/timeline.htm.

5. Clark, D. (2000, January 22). Word war 1 - show, tell, do, and check. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://www.skagitwatershed.org/~donclark/hrd/history/war1.html.

6. About.com: 20th Century History. (2009). Timeline of the twentieth century: 1910-1919. Retrieved March 16, 2009 from http://history1900s.about.com/library/time/bltime1910.htm.

7. Gantt Charts. (n.d.) Evolution of the Gannt charts. Retrieved March 18, 2009 from http://www.ganttchart.com/Evolution.html.

8. World War I. (n.d.). In MSN Encarta online. Retrieved March 16, 2009 from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569981/World_War_I.html.

9. National Women’s History Project. (n.d.) Timeline of legal history of women in the United States: a timeline of the women's rights movement 1848 – 1998. Retrieved March 15, 2009 from http://www.legacy98.org/timeline.html.

10. Communication. (2008). In MSN Encarta online. Retrieved March 16, 2009 from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761564117_3/Communication.html#p41.

11. African American History: The Great Migration. (2008). In MSN Encarta online. Retrieved March 16, 2009 from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761595158_6/African_American_History.html#p203.

Return to 1910-1924

references 1924 1940
References 1924 - 1940

1. Clark, D. (2008, January 6). A time capsule of training and learning. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://www.skagitwatershed.org/~donclark/hrd/history/epss.html.

2. History of Management Thought. (n.d.). Retrieved March 17, 2009 from http://polaris.umuc.edu/~tgrodsky/admn601/managethought.html.

3. Mass production. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved March 18, 2009 fromhttp://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/368270/mass-production/368270main/Main

4. StateUniversity.com. (2009). Educational psychology - history, contemporary views of learning and motivation, issues and controversies. Retrieved March 22, 2009 from http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1938/Educational-Psychology.html.

5. Religious Facts: Just the facts on religion. (2009). Timeline of Judaism. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://www.religionfacts.com/judaism/timeline.htm.

6. Saettler, P. (2004). The evolution of American educational technology. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

7. Religious Facts: Just the facts on religion. (2009). Timeline of jehovah's witnesses. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://www.religionfacts.com/jehovahs_witnesses/timeline.htm.

8. Religious Facts: Just the facts on religion. (2009). Timeline of christianity. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from

http://www.religionfacts.com/christianity/timeline.htm.

9. Thorndike's Connectionism. (1998). Retrieved March 20, 2009 from http://neuron-ai.tuke.sk/NCS/VOL1/P3_html/node10.html .

10. Great Depression in the United States. (2008). In MSN Encarta online. Retrieved March 16, 2009 from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761584403/Great_Depression_in_the_United_States.html.

11. Apprenticeship. (2008). In MSN Encarta Encyclopedia online. Retrieved March 17, 2009 from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761565484/Apprenticeship.html.

12. Chester (Irving) Bernard. (2009). In Cambridge Encyclopedia online, Vol 15 online. Retrieved March 17, 2009 from http://encyclopedia.stateuniversity.com/pages/4338/Chester-Irving-Barnard.html.

13. Learning Theory Timeline. (n.d.) Retrieved March 20, 2009 from http://hagar.up.ac.za/catts/learner/smarks/Learning_theory_timeline.html .

14. Communication. (2008). In MSN Encarta online. Retrieved March 16, 2009 from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761564117_3/Communication.html#p41.

Return to 1924-1940

references 1940 1955
References 1940 - 1955

1. Saettler, P. (2004). The evolution of American educational technology. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

2. Pearl Harbor. (2008). In MSN Encarta online. Retrieved March 16, 2009 from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569623/Pearl_Harbor.html.

3. Hull's Learning Rule. (1998). Retrieved March 20, 2009 from http://neuron-ai.tuke.sk/NCS/VOL1/P3_html/node11.html

4. Computer. (2008). In MSN Encarta online. Retrieved March 16, 2009 from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761563087_6/Computer.html#p101 .

5. Clark, D. (2000, January 22). Kurt Lewin (1890-1947). Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://www.skagitwatershed.org/~donclark/hrd/history/lewin.html.

6. Organizational analysis. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved March 18, 2009, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1300508/organizational-analysis/259892/Origins-of-the-discipline#ref=ref920171.

7. Herbert A. Simon. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved March 18, 2009 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/545185/Herbert-A-Simon.

8. Religious Facts: Just the facts on religion. (2009). Timeline of Christianity. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://www.religionfacts.com/christianity/timeline.htm

9. Religious Facts: Just the facts on religion. (2009). Buddhism Timeline. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://www.religionfacts.com/buddhism/timeline.htm

10. Bnet. (2009). Healthcare industry: cognitive development. Encyclopedia of Psychology. Retrieved March 20, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2699/is_0004/ai_2699000417 .

11. Peter Drucker. (2008). In MSN Encarta Encyclopedia online. Retrieved March 17, 2009 from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_762505488/Drucker_Peter_Ferdinand.html.

12. CNN.com. (2007, February 21). Extra! Civil rights timeline. Retrieved March 15, 2009 from http://www.cnn.com/2006/EDUCATION/01/31/extra.civil.rights.timeline.

Return to 1940-1955

references 1955 1965
References 1955 - 1965

1. Toffler, A. (1980). The third wave. New York: Bantam.

2. CNN.com. (2007, February 21). Extra! Civil rights timeline. Retrieved March 15, 2009 from http://www.cnn.com/2006/EDUCATION/01/31/extra.civil.rights.timeline

3. Saettler, P. (2004). The evolution of American educational technology. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

4. Religious Facts: Just the facts on religion. (2009). Timeline of christianity. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://www.religionfacts.com/christianity/timeline.htm.

5. Intervention (India) Pvt. Ltd. (2003). PERT/CPM for Project Scheduling & Management. Retrieved March 18, 2009 from http://www.interventions.org/pertcpm.html.

6. Religious Facts: Just the facts on religion. (2009). Buddhism timeline. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://www.religionfacts.com/buddhism/timeline.htm.

7. Clark, D. (2008, January 6). A Time Capsule of Training and Learning. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://www.skagitwatershed.org/~donclark/hrd/history/epss.html.

8. Stolovitch, H. D. and Keeps, E. J. (1999). Handbook of human performance technology: improving individual and organizational performance worldwide. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

9. About.com: Agnosticism / Atheism. (2009). History of American religion: timeline. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/religion/blrel_amrel_chron.htm .

 10.) RensisLikert. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved March 18, 2009 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1085395/Rensis-Likert.

Return to 1955-1965

references 1965 1975
References 1965 - 1975

1. Toffler, A. (1980). The third wave. New York: Bantam.

2. Vietnam War (2008). In MSN Encarta online. Retrieved March 16, 2009 from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761552642/Vietnam_War.html.

3. Religious Facts: Just the facts on religion. (2009). Timeline of Judaism. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://www.religionfacts.com/judaism/timeline.htm.

4. Saettler, P. (2004). The evolution of American educational technology. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

5. CNN.com. (2007, February 21). Extra! Civil rights timeline. Retrieved March 15, 2009 from http://www.cnn.com/2006/EDUCATION/01/31/extra.civil.rights.timeline.

6. About.com: Agnosticism / Atheism. (2009). History of American religion: timeline. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/religion/blrel_amrel_chron.htm .

7. Learning Theory Timeline. (n.d.) Retrieved March 20, 2009 from http://hagar.up.ac.za/catts/learner/smarks/Learning_theory_timeline.html .

8. House, R. (1996). Path-goal theory of leadership: lessons, legacy, and a reformulated theory. Retrieved March 19, 2009 from http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/paper.cfm?paperID=674.

9. Watergate. (2008). In MSN Encarta online. Retrieved March 16, 2009 from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761553070/Watergate.html.

10. Valero, W. (2004). History of computers in education. Retrieved from http://york.cuny.edu/~valero/computers_in_education.htm.

11. National Women’s History Project. (n.d.) Timeline of legal history of women in the United States: a timeline of the women's rights movement 1848 – 1998. Retrieved March 15, 2009 from http://www.legacy98.org/timeline.html.

Return to 1965-1975

references 1975 1990
References 1975 - 1990

1. Northouse, P. G. (n.d.). Leadership: chapter 8 – leadership-member-exchange theory [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved March 19, 2009 from http://academic.regis.edu/tharring/ppt/Leadership/08_PowerPoint.ppt.

2. House, R. (1996). Path-goal theory of leadership: lessons, legacy, and a reformulated theory. Retrieved March 19, 2009 from http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/paper.cfm?paperID=674.

3. Clark, D. (2004, June 7). The Dick and Carey model – 1978. Retrieved March 23, 2009 from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/history_isd/carey.html.

4. Michael Porter. (2008). In MSN Encarta Encyclopedia online. Retrieved March 16, 2009 from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_762506748/Michael_Porter.html.

5. About.com: 20th Century History. (2009). Timeline of the twentieth century: 1980-1989. Retrieved March 16, 2009 from http://history1900s.about.com/library/time/bltime1980.htm.

6. Saettler, P. (2004). The evolution of American educational technology. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

7. Smith, M. K. (2002, 2008). Howard Gardner and multiple intelligences', the encyclopedia of informal education. Retrieved March 22, 2009 from http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm .

8. Conditions of Learning. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22, 2009 from http://comp.uark.edu/~jterrel/LT/what/What10.htm.

9. About.com: Human Resources. (2009). The two most important management secrets: the pygmalion and galateaeffects. Retrieved March 19, 2009 from http://humanresources.about.com/od/managementtips/a/mgmtsecret.htm.

10. Clark, D. (2008, January 6). A time capsule of training and learning. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://www.skagitwatershed.org/~donclark/hrd/history/epss.html.

11. Religious Facts: Just the facts on religion. (2009). Timeline of Christianity. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://www.religionfacts.com/christianity/timeline.htm.

12. Religious Facts: Just the facts on religion. (2009). Buddhism Timeline. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://www.religionfacts.com/buddhism/timeline.htm.

Return to 1975-1990

references 1990 2000
References 1990 - 2000

1. Anchored instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22, 2009 from http://tip.psychology.org/anchor.html .

2. Value Based Management.net. (2008). Kotter change phases model framework. Retrieved March 19, 2009 from http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_kotter_change.html .

3. About.com: 20th Century History. (2009). Timeline of the twentieth century: 1990-1999. Retrieved March 16, 2009 from http://history1900s.about.com/library/time/bltime1990.htm.

4. Thornburg, D. (n.d.). Welcome to the communication age. Retrieved March 11, 2009 from http://www.tcpd.org/thornburg/handouts/CommunicationAge.pdf .

5. About.com: Agnosticism / Atheism. (2009). History of American religion: timeline. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/religion/blrel_amrel_chron.htm .

6. Doherty, P. B. (n.d.). Learner control in asynchronous learning environments. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://www.aln.org/publications/magazine/v2n2/doherty.asp#24-31

7. House, R. (1996). Path-goal theory of leadership: lessons, legacy, and a reformulated theory. Retrieved March 19, 2009 from http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/paper.cfm?paperID=674.

8. Foster, C . (2004). Anchored Instruction. In  B. Hoffman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Educational Technology. Retrieved March 22, 2009, from http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/anchoredinstruc/index.htm.

9. Ryder, M. (2009). Instructional design models. Retrieved March 22, 2009 from http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~mryder/itc_data/idmodels.html.

Return to 1990-2000

references 2000 2008
References 2000 - 2008

1. Religious Facts: Just the facts on religion. (2009). Buddhism timeline. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://www.religionfacts.com/buddhism/timeline.htm

2. Religious Facts: Just the facts on religion. (2009). Timeline of mormonism. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://www.religionfacts.com/mormonism/timeline.htm

3. How did we get here? The history of blended learning. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22, 2009 from http://media.wiley.com/product_data/excerpt/67/07879729/0787972967.pdf .

4. Merrill, M. D. ( 2002). First principles of instruction. ETR&D, 50(3), pp. 43–59. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://www.indiana.edu/~tedfrick/aect2002/firstprinciplesbymerrill.pdf .

5. Telephone World.com. (2003, June 23). Siemens and microsoft make presence felt in enterprise communications. Retrieved March 23, 2009 from http://www.telephonyworld.com/cgi-bin/news/viewnews.cgi?category=all&id=1056416714.

6. Project Zero. (2009). Artful thinking. Retrieved March 23, 2009 from http://www.pz.harvard.edu/Research/CultThink.htm.

7. Project Zero. (2009). Artful thinking. Retrieved March 23, 2009 from http://www.pz.harvard.edu/Research/ArtThink.htm.

8. TW2007/HPL Coverage Site. (2007, June 4). DVE tele-immersion room (the ultimate telepresence) debuts at telepresence world. Retrieved March 23, 2009 from http://www.humanproductivitylab.com/tw2007/archives/2007/06/.

Return to 2000-2008