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Starter. Review the questions from last week. How can you improve them? (Look at the command words) Make use of your green pen. A2 Physical Education Sport Psychology. ANXIETY AND ATTITUDES. Week 2 Revision. Overview. Review your summary notes. Any questions arising?. Attitudes TIPS!.

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  • Review the questions from last week. How can you improve them? (Look at the command words)

  • Make use of your green pen.

A2 physical education sport psychology

A2 Physical Education Sport Psychology


Week 2 Revision

Review your summary notes
Review your summary notes

  • Any questions arising?

Attitudes tips
Attitudes TIPS!

  • Make sure you understand how attitudes are formed and influenced.

  • You need to be able to explain how attitudes can be changed. What are the two techniques called?

  • Try to understand the links between attitude and behaviour in sport.

Attitude objects

The people, subject or situation towards which an attitude is directed.

What is an attitude
What is an ATTITUDE?

ATTITUDES – A learned behavioural predisposition. (linked with personality)










Formation of attitudes
Formation of Attitudes








Attitudes are mainly formed through experiences.

Socialisation: The process of mixing and relating to other people.

Triadic model of attitudes
Triadic Model of Attitudes

This is known as the information component

This concerns how a person intends to behave towards an attitude object

This is known as the emotional component

Measurement of attitudes
Measurement of attitudes

  • Interviews

  • Self report questionnaires

  • Observations

  • Thurston scale, Likert scale, Osgood’s semantic differential scale

  • +ve and –ve

  • Validity and reliability. Why?

Changing attitudes persuasive communication theory
Changing attitudes - Persuasive Communication Theory

You need to be aware of most effective way of persuading someone to change their attitude.

Would these people persuade you or would they just cause you stress?

Persuasive communication theory
Persuasive Communication Theory

  • The Persuader

  • Significant other

  • with high status

2. The Message

Positive to initiate

the change


  • the personmust

    • pay attention

  • - understand

    • - accept

    • - retain

    • the message being given

  • the coach must

    • - be expert

    • - be trustworthy

  • the message must

    • - be clear

    • - be unambiguous

    • - be balanced between pros and cons

3. The recipients

Easy to changed

an attitude if the

recipient really

wishes to be


4. The situation

The presence of

other persuaders


You are a GCSE PE pupil. How could persuasive communication change your negative attitude towards cross country?


  • A significant other, e.g. teacher/captain persuades you that cross country has excellent fitness benefits for a GCSE PE pupil. The teacher explains that they can chose cross country as one of their 4 sports.

  • The teacher tells you it will improve your practical grade if you opt for cross country.

  • You understand that this could improve your overall practical grade so you begin to realise the benefits of taking part.

  • Other pupils in your GCSE class share positive experiences of cross country with you and actively encourage you to take part.

  • Focus on aspects of the triadic model

Cognitive dissonance theory festinger
Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Festinger)

If a person hold two ideas that oppose and conflict with each other an element of discomfort arises. Emotional conflict is called DISSONANCE.

Cognitive dissonance theory festinger1
Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Festinger)

To reduce this feeling of dissonance, the impact of one of the conflicting ideas could be lessened and therefore an attitude would change.

Updating knowledge or providing a person with new information can change the cognitive component.

Providing a person with new and positive experiences can modify the affective component.

If a skill is simplified or if some form of guidance is used to make execution easier, the behavioural component of attitude can be changed.


How could a physical education teacher change the negative attitude that a pupil may have towards swimming?


  • Educate the pupil about the benefits of swimming

  • Use cognitive dissonance theory

  • Persuasive communication from a significant other, e.g. teacher

  • Set achievable goals to ensure pupil achieves success and experiences enjoyment.

  • Offer rewards, e.g. praise, trophies.

  • Familiarise with role models from within the sport of swimming.

  • Use floats to make execution of some strokes easier.

  • Attribution retraining.

To conclude
To conclude……….

  • Attitudes are generally poor predictors of behaviour.

  • Social and situational factors influence actual behaviour very strongly.

  • “Behavioural intention is the strongest predictor of behaviour (Fishbein, 1974).”

Review the syllabus
Review the syllabus

  • Devise two attitude questions (3 and 4 marks)

  • Devise an attitude essay question (14 marks)

Types of anxiety
Types of anxiety

TRAIT ANXIETY: Genetically inherited. These people appear to be anxious at all times. This tends to be permanent and relatively stable.

STATE ANXIETY: This fluctuates in response to a given situation and is associated with arousal. It is a learned behavioural response, but can be controlled and manipulated to facilitate optimal performance.


SOMATIC (physical) RESPONSE: Follows the inverted U hypothesis and refers to physiological changes. Somatic responses include excesses muscular tension, heart and respiration rates, resulting in impaired movement. This condition will not allow the performer to enter a ‘peak flow’ state.

COGNITIVE (psychological) RESPONSE: Reflects increasing worry about performance. They could become increasingly apprehensive and develop doubts and negative thoughts. Attentional changes occur which negatively impact on the information processing system. If the athlete experiences worry, he or she will not attain a ‘peak flow’ state.

Review your summary notes1
Review your summary notes

  • Any questions that area arising?


  • ‘The non specific response of the body to any demand made on it’ Seyle 1956

  • Eustress – Positive form of stress

  • Anxiety – Negative form of stress

Measuring anxiety
Measuring anxiety

  • Observations

  • Questionnaires


  • Physiological measures

  • +ve / -ve


‘Anxiety occurs when there is a substantial imbalance between the individual’s perception of their ability and their perception of the demands and importance of the situation.’ (MARTENS)

Perception of the situational


e.g. I must win my leg of the relay if my

team is to have the chance of winning.

Perception of ability to cope.

e.g. I am not as good as my



Perception of the importance of the situation.

e.g. The result of this competition hinges

on this relay race.

Controlling anxiety
Controlling anxiety

  • Cognitive

  • Imagery

  • Mental rehearsal

  • Stress management

  • Attentional control

  • Thought stopping

  • Self talk

  • Somatic

  • Biofeedback

  • Centring

  • Breathing control

  • Muscle relaxation

Goal setting
Goal setting

  • Effective goal setting =

  • Development of self efficacy

  • Increased motivation

  • Reduction in anxiety

  • Persistence

  • 1. Outcome goal

  • 2. Performance goal

Review the syllabus1
Review the syllabus

  • Devise two anxiety questions (3 and 4 marks)

  • Devise an anxiety essay question (14 marks)