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Developing Strategic Readers. Dr. Connie Cain FLaRE Coordinator Just Read, Florida! [email protected] Who wants to improve their students’ reading comprehension?. Researchers found that reading comprehension can be increased…. In 15 to 20 days,

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developing strategic readers

Developing Strategic Readers

Dr. Connie Cain

FLaRE Coordinator

Just Read, Florida!

[email protected]

researchers found that reading comprehension can be increased
Researchers found that reading comprehension can be increased…
  • In 15 to 20 days,
  • From 30% to 80% on comprehension tests
  • With strong results for struggling readers from low achieving urban areas
  • With students in primary through secondary grades
  • In large group settings and peer led groups
  • And the students maintained comprehension skills when tested a year later.

According to Lori D. Oczkus in Reciprocal Teaching at Work: Strategies for Improving Reading Comprehension, in studies by Palinscar and Brown, 1984; Palinscar and Klenk, 1991, 1992; Cooper, et. al. 2000; and Carter, 1997.

slide5
Reciprocal Teaching

Rosenshine & Meister (1994) reviewed 16 studies and found that reciprocal teaching is a technique that improves reading comprehension.Lori D. Oczkus. (2005).Reciprocal Teaching at Work

find someone who
Find Someone Who…
  • Find Someone Who… Directions
  • Find Someone Who… Record Sheet
  • Essential Social Skills for Group Work
what are the social skills needed for effective group work
Take turns & share air-time

Listen Actively

Make eye contact

Lean in, nod confirm

Pull other people in

Ask follow-up questions

Be tolerant of others’ ideas

Piggyback on ideas of others

Speak up when you disagree

Disagree constructively

Stay focused, on task

Support your views with the text

Be responsible to the group

What are the social skills needed for effective group work?
what is a proficient reader
What is a proficient reader?

“Proficient readers monitor their comprehension during reading they know when the text they are reading or listening to makes sense, when it does not, what does not make sense, and whether the unclear portions are critical to the overall understanding of the piece.”

E. O. Keene & S. Zimmermann. (1997).Mosaic of Thought, p. 43

what is a strategic reader
What is a strategic reader?

“A strategic reader has the personal understandings, skills, and motivation to consciously and unconsciously select and integrate many sources of information when reading and thinking about text…that is being an active reader thinking before, during and after reading to make sense of and use texts.”

Connie Cain, discussion quote from reading class lecture at UCF, RED 5514, 2005

slide11
Instructional Practices

versus

Strategic Behaviors

(Strategies)

(Instructional practices are often referred to as “strategies” which causes confusion.)

instructional practices versus strategic behaviors
Instructional Practices

versus

Strategic Behaviors

slide13
Instructional Practices are what teachers do to teach the “in the head” work that effective readers doto comprehend text.Instructional Practices are used to teach Strategic Behaviors.
slide14
Instructional Practices

(teacher methods)

Developing Social Skills

Reciprocal Teaching

Discussion Groups

Think Alouds

Anchor Lessons for Strategic Behaviors

Mini-lessons for social, cognitive, or literary skills

Text Coding

Jigsaw

Assessment

Strategic Behaviors

(in the head thinking processes)

Monitoring / Metacognition

Previewing*

Knowing how words work

Identifying text patterns

Self-questioning*

Making connections

Visualizing

Inferring

Determining Importance

Summarizing

Evaluating/ Author’s Craft

slide15
Instructional Practices

Developing Social Skills

Reciprocal Teaching*

Discussion Groups

Think Alouds

Anchor Lessons for Strategic Behaviors

Mini-lessons for social, cognitive, or literary skills

Text Coding

Jigsaws

Written Discussions

Assessment

Strategic Reading Behaviors

Monitoring comprehension

Predicting*

Knowing how words work

Identifying text patterns

Generating questions*

Making connections

Visualizing

Inferring

Determining Importance

Summarizing*

Evaluating/ Author’s Craft

reciprocal teaching
Reciprocal Teaching
  • Predicting
  • Questioning
  • Clarifying
  • Summarizing
  • All the other strategic behaviors fall under the category of Clarifying
clarifying
Clarifying
  • Clarifying hinges upon the reader monitoring comprehension and then (the reader) doing something to make sense of the text when meaning is lost or confusing.
teach social skills
Teach Social Skills
  • What should group work look like?
  • What should group work sound like?
  • “It is difficult to be mean to someone you know.”
  • Find Someone Who …
  • Membership Grids
how do you teach the technique of reciprocal teaching
How do you teach the technique of reciprocal teaching?
  • By modeling using “think alouds”
  • By slowing down the reading process
  • By scaffolding with guided practice
  • By teaching social skills for effective group work
  • By teaching students to think about and reflect on their strategic behaviors (metacognition)
  • By using mini-lessons to advance learning
slide21
Teachers will find a need to write your own Mini-lessons and Anchor Lessons using resource books and a variety of texts, such as picture books and news articles.Here is a flowchart for developing mini-lessons.Adapted from Literature Circles Heinemann Institute: Building Better Student Book Clubs K-12, Harvey Daniels, 2006.
slide22
Guided Class Meeting

Students brainstorm solutions

Teacher adds own ideas

Students choose a solution

Students commit to implement

Skill or Strategy Lesson

Define skill/strategy

Practice with short text

Share responses

Students commit to implement

“I’ve notice a problem…”ORLet’s try something new…”Teacher explains why it mattersANDTeacher connects to own reading or group work

Groups meet and apply mini-lessons

Debrief outcomes

Adapted from Literature Circles Heinemann Institute: Building Better Student Book Clubs K-12, Harvey Daniels, 2006.

explicit scaffolded instruction
Explicit Scaffolded Instruction
  • Tell Them
  • Show Them
  • Think Aloud
  • Model Again
  • Guided Practice / Reciprocal Teaching
    • Fish Bowl – Jigsaw – Record Sheets - Bookmarks
  • More Practice moving in small steps toward Independent Work
    • Mini Lessons based on observations- cognitive, social & literary
scaffolding
Scaffolding
  • Anchor Lessons for 8 strategies (Develop your own)
  • Think Alouds (Write your own / sample)
  • INSERT (Teach them to Code)
  • Cooperative Table Groups (Fish Bowl)
  • Mini-lessons (Write your own)
  • Role Cards (Make Them)
  • Bookmarks (Copy)
  • Table Group Summaries (Copy)
  • Literature Discussion Sheet (Copy)
  • Self-Assessment Form RT Literature Circles (Copy)
  • Using the RT Team when reading (Independence)
simulation activity
Simulation Activity
  • Divide students into groups of 4 each
  • Find Someone Who…
  • Membership Grid
  • Role Sheets
  • Annotated Reading & Text Coding
  • Record Sheet
  • Roles should only be temporary and lead to independence
  • Use a variety of support to teach the process
  • Teach for Independence and Flexible Thinking
slide27
ResourcesBillmeyer, R., & Barton, M. L. (1998). Teaching reading in the content areas: If not me, then who? Aurora, Co: McREL.Heinemann Professional Development (2006). Literature circles: Build a better book club K-12. Portland ME: Heinemann Workshops.Keen, E. O., & Zimmermann, S. (1997). Mosaic of thought: Teaching comprehension in a reader’s workshop. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Oczkus, L. D. (2003). Reciprocal teaching at work: Strategies for improving reading comprehension. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
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