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Ethics in Research

Ethics in Research

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Ethics in Research

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  1. Ethics in Research Qualitative Research Methods

  2. Ethics in Research • Why Important? With ethics there is often no clear-cut answer. “It’s the right thing to do”

  3. Ethics in Research • What are Ethics? Ethics: Individual, organizational, or cultural beliefs about what is right and wrong, good and bad, in actions that affect others - System of morally correct conduct - Deciding which is the better choice in any given situation

  4. Ethics in Research • Why Important? Ethical/unethical behavior is ultimately a matter of what a community of people agree is right and wrong - Professional standards

  5. Ethics in Research • Perspectives/Theories 3 Types: • Deontological: focuses on obligation/duty to a rule no matter the outcome Kant’s Categorical Imperative: act only in ways (and upon things) that should be universal laws - All people should behave the same

  6. Ethics in Research • Perspectives/Theories 3 Types: • Deontological: b. Also includes the Judeo Christian Golden Rule

  7. Ethics in Research • Perspectives/Theories 3 Types: 2.Teleological: based on consequences a. Utilitarian: Choose an action based on the greatest good for the greatest number - majority rules

  8. Ethics in Research • Perspectives/Theories 3 Types: • Relativism: based on the notion that what is right/good for one may not be good/right for all - situational

  9. Ethics in Research • Human Subjects Ethical Principles: 1.Autonomy: the obligation on the part of the investigator to respect each participant as a person capable of making informed decisions regarding participation in the research study

  10. Ethics in Research Human Subjects Ethical Principles: 2. Beneficence: the obligation on the part of the investigator to attempt to maximize benefits for the individual participant and/or society, while minimizing risk of harm to the individual

  11. Ethics in Research Human Subjects Ethical Principles: 3. Justice: demands equitable selection of participants as well as equality in distribution of benefits and burdens among the population group(s) likely to benefit from the research

  12. Ethics in Research Conducting Research Considerations: 1. Voluntary participation - no coercion/misrepresentation 2. No harm to participants - informed consent

  13. Ethics in Research • Conducting Research Considerations: 3. Anonymity and confidentiality anonymity: no links between given responses and participants - encourages candor/honesty

  14. Ethics in Research • Conducting Research Considerations: 3. Anonymity and confidentiality confidentiality: researcher can identify respondents, but will not release their info to the public - U.S. courts do not recognize the confidentiality of social science research

  15. Ethics in Research • Conducting Research Considerations: • Deception and Concealment - Jeopardizes integrity of the research process - Last resort - Must be justifiable - Use sparingly - Mandatory debriefings

  16. Ethics in Research Informed Consent 5 Components: 1. Disclosure:participant must be informed as fully as possible of the nature and purpose of the research, the procedures to be used, the expected benefits, potential for risks, stresses, discomforts, and alternatives to participating in the research

  17. Ethics in Research Informed Consent 5 Components: 2. Understanding:the participant must understand what has been explained and must be given the opportunity to ask questions and have them answered by one of the investigators

  18. Ethics in Research Informed Consent 5 Components: 3. Voluntariness:consent to participate must be voluntary 4. Competence: the participant must be competent to give consent 5. Consent: the participant must authorize his/her participation in the research study, preferably in writing, oral consent OK

  19. Ethics in Research • Human Subjects Protection The protection of human subjects is of the utmost importance in research. Review boards are often used to evaluate the potential for harm in a proposed study. - Human Subjects Committee - Institutional Review Board (IRB)

  20. Ethics in Research Human Subjects Protection Nuremburg Code: Resulted a from the prosecution of 23 German doctors for war crimes - August 19, 1947, 7 found guilty and sentenced to death, 8 sentenced to imprisonment from ten years to life, and 7 found not guilty

  21. Ethics in Research Human Subjects Protection The Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) was created as an administrative unit within the Department of Health and Human Services and was commissioned to define and implement DHHS Regulations for the Protection of Human Subjects.

  22. Ethics in Research Human Subjects Protection OHRP July 12, 1974, the National Research Act (Public Law 93­348) was signed into law "Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research", known as The Belmont Report, was issued by the Commission in 1979 - See the 3 Principles

  23. Ethics in Research • Reporting Research Results Considerations: • Objectivity and neutrality • Honesty and integrity - Be true to data - report shortcomings of study

  24. Ethics in Research • Reporting Research Results Considerations: 3. Plagiarism - DO NOT PLAGIARIZE - Give credit to the proper authors

  25. Ethics in Research • Cases Stanford Prison Experiment http://www.prisonexp.org/ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sd3KXppIBDs