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ANALYSIS OF PEER-TO-PEER SOCIAL NETWORKING. Afrin Shaik. OUTLINE . Problem Introduction Related work My contribution. Problem. As social networking analysis, peer-to-peer social networking analysis is also interesting in terms of D ata availability and long term data durability.

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  • Problem
  • Introduction
  • Related work
  • My contribution

As social networking analysis, peer-to-peer social networking analysis is also interesting in terms of

  • Data availability and long term data durability.
  • How many peers are online and for how much time?
  • How can we maintain replicas, how those replicas available to other peers.
  • How many replicas are selected to store a single profile.
  • What are the criteria to select replicas.
  • What is social networking?
  • Facebook, My space, Twitter, etc….
social networking
Social networking
  • In social networking owner has access to all the data.
  • Using this data these networks filters the advertisements based on interests of individuals and displays them.
social networking1
Social networking
  • Client server architecture
  • Huge amount of personal information
  • User must trust their providers blindly
  • Some limitations like

-privacy concerns.

-requirement of internet connectivity.

what is peer to peer social networking
What is Peer-to-Peer social networking?
  • To overcome these issues peer-to-peer architecture is proposed for the social networks called peer to peer social networking.
  • paradigm shift from client-server to a peer-to-peer infrastructure coupled with encryption so that users keep control of their data and can use the social network also locally, without Internet access.
peer to peer social networking
Peer to peer social networking
  • Peer to peer resembles real life

Social relations of the users are maintained by including three attributes – “unique iden-tifier/pseudonym”, “relation-type” (friend, relative, colleague, etc.) and “trust level” (High, Medium, Low).

  • The profiles of the users are divided into two main categories- Resources and Relations.
  • The social links of a user are divided into groups based on the relation-type attribute and are stored under the category, Relations.

The category, Resources is also divided into groups based on types, such as private in-formation (Profession, age, educational qualification, family information, etc.) private messaging, public messaging (wall, group page, status, events, etc.), pictures or videos, etc.

  • Access control constraints on resource or group of resources are defined, to specify specific operation type, such as read, or write on the wall, or status (public messaging); view, or comment, or tag on pictures, or videos; or read, write, administration on group-pages or events.
p2p social networking
P2p Social networking
  • Two approaches of p2p Social Networking.

- MyNet

- PeerSoN

  • This approach provides secure p2p social networking service on top of unmanaged internet Architecture(UIA) overlay.
  • The focus is on providing resources among friends and devices uniformly and without delay.
  • MyNet enables users to share the data in a secure fashion with his/her friends or colleagues.
  • This approach paid attention to security and privacy concerns.
  • Main goal is to remove centralized entities.
  • This is achieved by using DHT.
  • To increase the availability replication technique is used. Clients cache all the entries received and make them available to other peers.
prototype architecture peerson
Prototype architecture(peerSoN)
  • Lookup service – meta data required to find users and the data they store ( IP address, informaion about files and notification for users)
  • Peers and user data such as user profiles
  • PeerSoN uses Distributed Hash Tables for Look up service
s torage in peer to peer social networks
Storage in peer-to-peer social networks
  • Long term durability of content.
  • online availability.
  • bootstrapping.
  • # friends.
  • Geography.

To store small objects peerSoN uses replication technique rather than coding.

related studies
Related Studies

Replica Placement in P2P Storage: Complexity and Game Theoretic Analyses

By Krzysztof Rzadca, AnwitamanDatta, Sonja Buchegger.

  • They have studied replica placement in a p2p storage system in order to optimize availability and the number of replicas.
  • Analyzed two idealistic models of peer availability : probabilistic model; and time slot model. For both models, they proved that it is NP-hard to optimize availability for the socially-equitable scheme (in which the data availability of all peers is similar).
  • The performance for less available peers can be improved by considering diurnal patterns of peer availability, rather than just a single number. However, exploiting diurnal patterns has a measurable impact only when the system has truly global scope, gathering participants from different time zones
another study
Another study

Geographic routing in social networks

By David Liben-Nowell, Jasmine Novak, Ravi Kumar, PrabhakarRaghavan, and Andrew Tomkins

  • They have shown that the natural mechanisms of friendship formation result in rank-based friendship: people in aggregate have formed relationships with almost exactly the connection between friendship and rank that is required to produce a navigable small world. In a lamentably imperfect world, it is remarkable that people form friendships so close to the perfect distribution for navigating their social structures.

In-degree (Left) and out-degree (Right) distributions in LiveJournal. For each k, the number Nin(k) of LiveJournal users who are listed as a friend of at least k users and the number Nout(k) of people who list at least k friends are shown, both for all 1,300,000 users and the 500,000 users who list locatable hometowns in the United States.


The relationship between friendship probability and geographic distance. (A) For each distance , the proportion P() of friendships among all pairs u, v of LiveJournal users with d(u, v) is shown. Distances are rounded down to multiples of 10 km. The number of pairs u,v with d(u, v) is estimated by computing the distance between 10,000 randomly chosen pairs of people in the network. The curved line corresponding to P() 1 in A models the fact that some LiveJournal friendships are independent of geography: for distances larger than 1,000 km, the background friendship probability begins to dominate geography-based friendships. (B) The same data are plotted, correcting for the background friendship probability: we plot distance versus P() 5.0 106.

my contribution
My contribution
  • Analyze replica management in terms online availability, and unavailability of peers by considering geography into account.
  • Data

- Simulations

  • Network Metrics

- Power law distribution.


RobayetNasim. Privacy-Enhancing Access Control Mechanism in Distributed Online Social Network. KTH Master's thesis, May 2011.

Krzysztof Rzadca, AnwitamanDatta, Sonja Buchegger. Replica Placement in P2P Storage: Complexity and Game Theoretic Analyses. In Proceedings of ICDCS 2010, Genoa, Italy, June 2010.

Sonja Buchegger, Doris Schiöberg, Le Hung Vu, AnwitamanDatta. PeerSoN: P2P Social Networking - Early Experiences and Insights. In Proceedings of SocialNets 2009, The 2nd Workshop on Social Network Systems, Nuernberg, Germany, March 31, 2009.

Doris Schiöberg. A Peer-to-peer Infrastructure for Social Networks. Diplom Thesis, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, Dezember 17, 2008.

Sonja Buchegger, AnwitamanDatta. A Case for P2P Infrastructure for Social Networks - Opportunities and Challenges. In Proceedings of WONS 2009, The Sixth International Conference on Wireless On-demand Network Systems and Services, Snowbird, Utah, USA, February 2-4 2009.

Onnela J-P, Arbesman S, Gonza´lez MC, Baraba´si A-L, Christakis NA (2011) Geographic Constraints on Social Network Groups. PLoS ONE 6(4): e16939. oi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016939

Facebook and Online Privacy: Attitudes, Behaviors, and Unintended Consequences

Geographic routing in social networks By David Liben-Nowell*†‡§, Jasmine Novak†, Ravi Kumar†¶, PrabhakarRaghavan¶, and Andrew Tomkins†¶