Chapters. 26-27. Delight Pleasure Materialism. Graceful // elegant Sensual // sensuous // erotic // indulgent // voluptuous // hedonic Intimate // trivial // frivolous. Rococo. Antoine Watteau, Departure from the Island of Cythera, 1717.
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Street in Herculaneumhttp://www.coco.cc.az.us/apetersen/_ART201/pompeii.htm
It expresses a reaction of the bourgeoisie against Rococo -the reaction of virtue against decadence- and intends to simplify. It carries along some of the basic ideas of the French revolution, glorifying the great virtues of antiquity and accepting paganism, adding science to emotion. During the empire, the values of the roman civilization are promoted.
In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the United States, in search of foundational models to replace its former reliance on Great Britain, turned to examples from the ancient world, particularly the Roman republic, and, to a lesser extent, ancient Greece. Americans associated classical Greece and Rome with the virtuous, anti-aristocratic political and cultural ideals they hoped would prevail in the United States. Ancient Romans founded the first republic--a representational government in which power is held by the people and representatives are charged with the common welfare of all the people in the country--and Americans were anxious to emulate this model. Their growing interest in the art and culture of the ancient world was part of an aesthetic movement known as neoclassicism. http://www.learner.org/amerpass/unit04/context_activ-2.html
Neoclassical ideals also permeated American art and architecture. Artists eagerly adopted Roman models, creating statues of political and military leaders like George Washington wearing togas and crowned with laurel wreaths. . . . But it was in architecture that the American neoclassical aesthetic achieved its best expression, a fact that was largely the result of Thomas Jefferson's commitment to infusing American buildings with classical principles of order and reason.
Washington, D.C., was conceived of as a grand neoclassical city made up of orderly avenues and imposing government buildings.
The overriding impression of such gardens is of man's tyranny over nature.
Our meddling intellect
Mis-shapes the beauteous forms of things
We murder to dissect
--John Constable (1776-1837)
--J. M. W. Turner (1775-1851)
--Théodore Géricault (1791-1824)
--Eugène Delacroix (1799-1863)
--Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840)
Burke divided all aesthetic responses into two categories, the beautiful and the sublime.
The beautiful includes all that is smooth, regular, delicate, and harmonious; the sublime, all that is rough, gloomy, violent, and gigantic.
Sublimity among objects of nature includes all that is untamed and uncivilized, such as the wilder parts of the countryside, mountains, cataracts, volcanoes, and scenes that are savage and primitive as opposed to "cultivated.“
--The Hudson River School (1830s-1840s)
Thomas Cole was the leader of the Hudson River School, named after the Hudson River region of New York State, which we recognize as creating the first American style of painting. Cole found nature awe inspiring: he interpreted it as reflecting the hand of God and was therefore reverential toward the wilderness.
Thomas Cole, "The Oxbow," 1836http://faculty.evansville.edu/rl29/art105/img/cole_oxbow.jpg
Cole relies heavily on European conventions of landscape painting to convey the visual representation of the struggle between wilderness and civilization. Cronon points out that the diagonal of the tree to the left that directs the view of the scene down the valley toward the farmland is a trademark of celebrated French landscapist Claude Lorrain. The dramatic storm clouds over the wilderness speak of the uncontrolled power of nature, but also of the sublimity of this power. Cole shows no remorse for the recession of the wilderness from the scene. The soft greens and yellows and the gentle rolling landscape of the farms suggest that the pastoral civilization that replaces the wilderness is as beautiful in its order as nature is in its sublimity. Thomas Cole, "The Oxbow," 1836http://xroads.virginia.edu/~cap/NATURE/oxbow.html
Thomas Cole, 1842. Part of a series of paintings called "The Voyage of Life," which takes a person from childhood to youth to manhood to old age. This painting symbolizes manhood.http://www.cep.unt.edu/show/034.htm
Look closely at the upper left corner, above the mountain peak. You may be able to see faintly painted rays of light that give the scene a spiritual feeling.http://www.ncmoa.org/artnc/object.php?themeid=3&objectid=29
The people in the landscape are so small compared to the whole scene. And they are American Indians, the first inhabitants of the New York and New England wilderness already being developed by European Americans in Cole's time. Their presence confirms this is an America landscape, not European.http://www.swarthmore.edu/Humanities/kjohnso1/pictures/mohicanscole.jpg
—the Western frontier as an American Garden of Eden
Bierstadt’s vast panoramas of the Rockies and Sierra Nevada, their skies often turbulent and shot through with sunlight, introduced Americans to a majestic wilderness, awesome but unthreatening, and well worth possessing. In a sense, the artist staked claim to the land by painting it, then passed the ownership on to the viewer.
His many paintings of Yosemite are indeed biblical in grandeur, imbued with the sense that divinity dwelled within the wilderness.
Albert Bierstadt, Hetch Hetchy Canyon, 1875http://www.mtholyoke.edu/offices/artmuseum/general_info.html
Albert Bierstadt, Yosemite, 1866, http://www.isu.edu/~wattron/OLBierstadt.html
Although the valley was still very much in a wild, primitive state, in this painting, Bierstadt portrays the valley as orderly and park-like. He has eliminated clutter, keeping the elements of the painting to only the essentials.
—invested his vistas with a heroic and quasi-religious spirit
In the 1850s, influenced by the great explorer Alexander von Humboldt, Church traveled to South America and made sketches that were the basis of a great Andean panorama. Church painted nature with uncanny fidelity and an abiding sense of awe. His landscapes embodied America's belief that the opening of frontiers and territorial expansion were the nation's destiny.
Church, Heart of the Andes, 1859 http://www.artchive.com/artchive/C/church/heart_of_andes.jpg.html
Church, "Niagara Falls from the American Side,“ 1867http://www.thecityreview.com/fechurch.html