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Health Behaviour in School-aged Children A World Health Organisation Collaborative Cross-national study. Promoting the health, wellbeing and development of young people: an asset model. Antony Morgan. HBSC Programme of Research: asset modelling.

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slide1

Health Behaviour in School-aged Children

A World Health Organisation Collaborative Cross-national study

hbsc programme of research asset modelling
HBSC Programme of Research: asset modelling

‘T0 highlight the best ways of promoting caring and responsive environments that protect young people and which create opportunities for them to explore their worlds – growing up into productive and healthy people’

the asset model believes
The Asset Model believes…

‘..policy development has focused too much on the failure of individuals and local communities to avoid disease rather than their potential to create and sustain health and continued development’

Source: Morgan and Ziglio (2007)

the inequalities context
The inequalities context:
  • Some policies have not been ‘equity proofed’ meaning that some well intentioned policies and initiatives have increased inequalities
  • Solutions are complex, long term and resource intensive (difficult to sustain in changing political environments)
  • Too much emphasis on disease and dying rather than health happiness and well being
  • From deficits to assets……………..
inequalities in adolescent health
Inequalities in adolescent health
  • strong and consistent association between family affluence and self-reported health.
  • in almost all countries and both genders those who report lower levels of family affluence are significantly more likely to report high levels of fair or poor health

Currie et al (2008)

slide7
‘The misery of youth: Teenagers depressed and fearful as drink, drugs and crime take their toll’July 2008, Daily Mail
happy not sad
Most children are satisfied with their lives, perceive their health to be good and do not regularly suffer from health complaintsHappy not sad!
assets and deficits
Assets and deficits
  • Deficit models focus on identifying problems and needs of populations requiring professional resources, resulting in high levels of dependence on hospital and welfare services (risk factors and disease).
  • In contrast: Asset models tend to accentuate positive ability, capability and capacity to identify problems and activate solutions , which promote the self esteem of individuals and communities leading to less reliance on professional services
salutogenesis antonovsky 1979
Salutogenesis (Antonovsky 1979)
  • Derivation of Greek and Latin
    • Latin: salus = health
    • Greek: genesis = source
    • In combination = Sources of health
  • Salutogenesis focuses attention on health generation as compared to a pathogenesis focus on disease generation
  • What causes some to prosper, and others to fail or become ill in similar situations?
  • Emphasis is upon the success and not the failure of the individual
salutogenesis and health assets how are they related
Salutogenesis and health assets – how are they related?
  • A health asset can be defined as any factor (or resource), which enhances the ability of individuals, communities and populations to maintain and sustain health and well-being.
  • Examples might include:
    • resilience as a protective factor for young peoples health development and wellbeing
    • social capital may act as a protective factor for communities particularly those that are most disadvantaged
assets and deficits1
What makes us strong?

What factors make us more resilient (more able to cope in times of stress)?

What opens us to more fully experience life?

Risk factors:

Fitness

Body Fat

Cholesterol

Smoking

Excess alcohol and other drugs

Assets and Deficits
slide15

Supporting Macro Environment

Access to health promoting physical environments

High Standards of Living

Good Education

Decent Housing

Key development

assets

Increasing age – less opportunity for mental well being to effect +ve health promoting behaviour

Increasing personal socio- economic circumstances – chances for increasing well being

Young People’s

Mental Well Being

Positive Health Promoting Behaviour

Low incidence of bullying

Low levels of substance misuse

Increased healthy eating and physical activity

Safer

sexual health

assets versus deficits
Assets versus deficits
  • The more we provide young people with opportunities to experience and accumulate the positive effects of protective factors (health assets), the more likely they are to achieve and sustain mental well being in later life
40 development assets scales 2001
Support (family relationships, caring school and neighbourhood)

Empowerment (community values youth, young people seen as resources)

Constructive use of time (participation in clubs and associations)

Commitment to learning (achievement motivation)

Positive values (caring and responsible to others)

Social competencies (cultural competence, peaceful conflict resolution

Positive identity (self esteem

40 Development Assets (Scales, 2001)
slide18

Mechanisms and pathways for building young people’s health e.g. social cohesion and wellbeing

P

O

S

I

T

I

V

E

H

E

A

L

T

H

B

E

H

A

V

I

O

U

R

S

Emotional

Well Being

Social Cohesion

(feelings of safety

and trust, sense

of belong

Social Well Being

Mental

Well

Being

Psychological

Well Being

modelling assets using hbsc
Modelling assets using HBSC.
  • Are some assets (protective factors) more important than others?
  • What are the cumulative effects of multiple assets on young people's mental well being?
  • How do different social and cultural impact on the benefits of these assets?

‘Redressing the balance between asset and deficit models for research’

summarising
Summarising………
  • Focuses on positive health promoting and protecting factors for the creation of health.
  • Emphasis on a life course approach to understanding the most important key assets at each life stage.
  • Passionate about the need to involve young people in all aspects of health development process
  • Recognises that many of the key assets for creating health lie within the social context of young people’s health inequalities
  • Helps to reconstruct existing knowledge in such a way as to help policy and practice to promote positive approaches to health
for more information
For more information
  • Antony.morgan@nice.org.uk
  • Morgan A and Ziglio E (2007) Revitalising the evidence base for public health: an assets model, Promotion and Education Supplement 2 pp17-22
  • Morgan A, Davies M and Ziglio E (2010) Health Assets in a Global Context: Theory Methods Action. Springer: new York: In Press
  • Health Assets in a Global Context: the case for young people; Symposium, Seville, Spain , 28-30 April 2010