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Welcome to ALI 138 : Tafseer of Sura Saba Session One ______________________________________ Academy for Learning Islam May 20, 2008 Tafseer.

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Welcome toALI 138 : Tafseer of Sura SabaSession One______________________________________Academy for Learning IslamMay 20,

  • Tafseer is an Arabic word تفسير which is derived from the root fassara which means to explain or toexpound. Tafseer in the language of the scholars means: explanation and clarification.
  • It aims at knowledge and understanding concerning the book of Allah, to explain its meanings, extract its legal rulings and grasp its underlying reasons. Tafseer explains the outer (zahir) meanings of the Qur'an.
  • Someone who writes tafseer is a mufassir مفسر

Its plural is مفسرون mufassirūn.

sources of tafseer
Sources of Tafseer
  • The Qur'an

The Holy Qur’an explains itself as Allah says:

"...and We have revealed the Book to you explaining

clearly everything, and a guidance and mercy and good

news for those who submit." (16:89)

  • Hadith from the Ahlul Bayt (a)

Only those hadith are accepted which have an

unbroken chain of narration from the Prophet (s)

and members of his family

  • Scholars who follow the conditions for the correct

approach to the Tafseer of the Qur’an

popular commentaries of the qur an
Popular Commentaries of the Qur’an
  • Ahle Sunnah

Tafseer al-Kashshaf, by al-Zamakhshari

Tafseer al-Kabeer, by Fakhr ad din Razi

Tafseer Ibne Kathir

Tafseere Jalalayn

Tafseer of Tabari

popular commentaries of the qur an1
Popular Commentaries of the Qur’an
  • Shi’ite

Majma’ al-Bayan fi Tafseeril Qur’an, by Shaykh Tabarsi

Nur al-Thaqalayn, by Ali al-Huwayzi

Tafseer al-Burhan, by Hashim al-Bahrani

Tafseer as-Safi, by Fayd al-Kashani

Tafseer al-Mizan, by Allamah Tabatabai

Tafseer Namune, compiled by a group of scholars under

Ayatullah Nasir Makarim Shirazi

Questions for Tadabbur

1) Praising Allah is a religious duty of believers in this world. Why would they also do it in the Hereafter?

2) What are the things that:

a) go into the earth?

b) come out of it?

c) come down from the sky?

d) go up to the sky?

3) What is the link between the two names of Allah at the end of verse 2 with the rest of the verse?

tafseer of sura saba concept of hamd
Tafseer of Sura SabaConcept of Hamd

The word Hamdحمد has the following meanings:

  • Praise, eulogy, commendation, admiration. حمد is different than مدح in that حمد is only of such acts that are done by choice, and not are just accidental. For example, describing a pearl as clear and beautiful is not حمد but مدحbecause the beauty of a pearl is not because of the pearl’s will. The Creator of the pearl is worthy of all حمد.
  • It also embodies the idea of thankfulness. حمد is different from شكر in that شكر is only on account of favor received whereas حمد is sometimes on account of favor received and sometimes even on accountof difficulties.
  • It implies magnifying and honoring of the object thereof.
  • It also implies lowliness, humility and submissiveness in the person who offers it.
types of hamd
Types of Hamd
  • قوليSpoken word
  • حالي Condition or State
  • فعلي Action

Types of Possession

  • خلقا Creation
  • ملكا Ownership
  • تصرفا Dealings
hamd in nahjul balagha
Hamd in Nahjul Balagha

O Allah

for You is all Praise

for what You give and what You take

for that with which You cure

and that with which You afflict

Praise that is most acceptable to you

most liked by You

most dignified before You

Praise which fills all Your creation

and reaches where You wish [it to reach]

Praise which is not veiled form You

and which does not end

and whose continuity does not cease

Khutba 160

hamd in the hereafter
Hamd in the Hereafter

Six places of Hamd in the Hereafter

  • upon separation from unbelievers – 23:28
  • after passing the Sirat – 35:34
  • when believers see Jannah – 7:43
  • when the enter Jannah – 35:35
  • when they have settled in their places – 39:74
  • after every meal – 10:10
the earth and the sky in the heart of a human being
The Earth and the Sky in the heart of a human being
  • Hadith compares the earth to a heart of a human being: Seek wisdom, for it gives life to the heart the way rain gives life to the dead earth
  • What goes into the heart and comes out of it

– physical properties (the heart as the earth)

  • What goes into the heart and comes out of it

- spiritual properties (the heart as the sky)

deeds rise into the sky
Deeds rise into the Sky

Good actions rise through the sky towards God

Whoever desires honor, then to Allah belongs all

honor. To Him ascends the good words, and the

good deeds lift them up . . . (35:10)