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Chapter 7. Early African Civilizations 2000 B.C. – A.D. 1500. Modern Day Africa. Key Events. The continent’s immense size and distinct geographical and climatic zones influenced where civilizations developed and how they survived

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chapter 7

Chapter 7

Early African Civilizations

2000 B.C. – A.D. 1500

key events
Key Events
  • The continent’s immense size and distinct geographical and climatic zones influenced where civilizations developed and how they survived
  • The introduction of Christianity and Islam affected the way civilizations developed and interacted
  • The development of trade led to the exchange of goods and cultural ideas
the impact today
The Impact Today
  • The expansion of trade creates a global society, allowing people to exchange goods, services, and ideas throughout the world
  • African art, music, and dance remain very influential today
chapter preview
Chapter Preview
  • “Explorer Finds Great Zimbabwe”
section 1

Section 1

The Development of Civilizations in Africa

the land of africa
The Land of Africa
  • Northern coast is mountainous
  • South of the mountains is the Sahara desert
  • Major regions south of the Sahara
    • Hump of Africa (Sahara gives way to grasslands and the tropical jungles)
    • Great Rift Valley (Mountains loom over deep canyons) Grasslands with many wild animals
    • Congo Basin (Dense Vegetation watered by the Congo river)
the climate of africa
The Climate of Africa
  • 4 Distinct Climate Zones (Map 224)
    • Mild Zone (Moderate rainfall and warm temperatures result in fertile land that produces abundant crops)
    • Deserts (40% of Africa)
    • Rain Forest (Heavy rains and warm temperatures produce dense forests where little farming and little travel are possible)
    • Savannas (Broad grasslands dotted with small trees and shrubs)
slide12
Kush
  • Became independent in 1000 B.C.
  • In 750 B.C. Kush Conquered Egypt
  • In 663 B.C. the Kushites were overwhelmed by the Assyrians and returned to upper Nile Valley
  • Economy originally based on farming
  • Soon emerged as one of the major trading states in the region
  • Kushites made iron weapons and tools
kush continued
Kush (Continued)
  • For the next 200 years, Kush was a major trading empire, providing iron products and goods from central and eastern Africa to the Roman Empire, as well as to Arabia and India.
  • Other Exports – Ivory, gold, ebony, and slaves.
  • Imports – Luxury goods, including jewelry and silver lamps from India and Arabia.
slide14
Axum
  • Located in the highlands of what is now Ethiopia
  • Founded by Arabs from the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula
  • Eventually combined Arab and African cultures
  • Prosperous due to location on Red Sea trade route
  • Conquered Kush in 4th century A.D.
the coming of islam
The Coming of Islam
  • For hundreds of years, relations between Christian Axum and its Muslim neighbors were relatively peaceful.
  • 12th Century – Problems arose as the Muslim states along the coast began to move inland to gain control over trade.
  • 15th Century – Axum was deeply involved with the Muslim state of Adal.
section 2

Section 2

Kingdoms and States of Africa

the kingdom of ghana
The Kingdom of Ghana
  • The first great trading state in West Africa – Emerged in A.D. 500
  • Most people were farmers living in villages under a local ruler
  • Together the villages formed the kingdom of Ghana
  • The Kings of Ghana were strong rulers (with great wealth) who governed without any laws.
ghana economy and trade
Ghana – Economy and Trade
  • Lived off the land and also prospered from their possession of both iron and gold.
  • Received imports of metal goods, textiles, horses, and salt from Muslim merchants
  • Exchange of goods took place through “silent trade” – page 229.
  • Also exported ivory, ostrich feathers, hides, and slaves.
the kingdom of mali
The Kingdom of Mali
  • Established around 1240 by Sundiata Keita (Compared to George Washington)
  • Extended from the Atlantic coast to the famous trading city of Timbuktu
  • Local rulers sent tax revenue to the Kings of Mali
  • Richest and most powerful king – Mansa Musa
  • By 1359, civil war divided Mali.
the kingdom of songhai
The Kingdom of Songhai
  • Located south of the bend in the Niger River in Western Africa
  • Due to military victories Songhai had control of the trading empire, especially salt and gold
  • Declined in the 16th century mainly due to Morocco forces occupying much of Songhai
  • By 1600 the Songhai Empire was all but gone
african trading empires
African Trading Empires
  • Review chart on page 232

Kush

Axum

Ghana

Mali

Songhai

bantus
Bantus
  • Migration of Bantus to East Africa (1st millennium B.C.)
  • Communities based on subsistence farming
  • Sometime after A.D. 1000 , descendants of a Bantu tribe established the prosperous city of Great Zimbabwe
bantus1
Bantus
  • String of trading ports on the Eastern edge of Africa (Mogadishu, Mombasa, and Kilwa) – 7th and 8th centuries.
  • Later in the 1500’s a Swahili culture began to emerge throughout the coastal area.
south africa
South Africa
  • Until the eleventh century A.D., most of the peoples lived in a stateless society.
  • From about 1300 to 1450, Zimbabwe was the wealthiest and most powerful state in the region.
section 3

Section 3

African Society and Culture

king and subject
King and Subject
  • Less of a divide between king and common people in Africa. Nevertheless, the king was still held in a position high above all others.
  • Relationship helped both sides
    • Merchants received favors from the king
    • King’s treasury received taxes paid by merchants
    • King maintained law and order in the kingdom so that the merchants could practice their trade
family and lineage
Family and Lineage
  • Extended family and lineage groups were very important to Africans.
  • All members of a lineage group could claim to be descended from a real or legendary common ancestor.
  • The elders in the group had the most power
  • Members took care of one another
role of women
Role of Women
  • Usually subordinate to Men
  • Women often worked in the fields while the men tended cattle or hunted
  • Most African societies were matrilineal rather than patrilineal
community education and initiation
Community Education and Initiation
  • At age 6, boys went to live in “house of the men” and girls in “the house of the women” – raised for adult roles
  • Initiation and ritual ceremony took place at puberty where they became men and women and entered into the life of the community
slavery
Slavery
  • Had been practiced in Africa since ancient times
  • Berber groups raided farming villages south of Sahara for captives and sold them throughout the Mediterranean
  • Slaves used in a variety of ways (Page 238)
religious beliefs in africa
Religious Beliefs in Africa
  • Most early Africans believed in a single creator - God.
  • Sometimes, the “creator god” was joined by a whole group of lesser gods.
  • Communication through rituals – by diviners.
religious beliefs in africa cont
Religious Beliefs in Africa (Cont.)
  • Importance of ancestors (closer to the gods)
  • Many African religions shared a belief in afterlife
  • Islam began spreading rapidly in Northern Africa and more slowly south of the Sahara
  • Christianity also spread in the mountains of Ethiopia
african culture
African Culture
  • Earliest art forms in Africa were rock paintings showing the life of the peoples.
  • Wood carvers made remarkable masks and statues (usually representing gods, spirits, and ancestral figures).
  • Later, metal workers produced handsome bronze and iron statues
  • Dance, music, and storytelling served religious purposes.
chapter 71

Chapter 7

Early African Civilizations

Wrap Up and Review

key events re visited
Key Events (Re-visited)
  • The continent’s immense size and distinct geographical and climatic zones influenced where civilizations developed and how they survived
  • The introduction of Christianity and Islam affected the way civilizations developed and interacted
  • The development of trade led to the exchange of goods and cultural ideas
the impact today re visited
The Impact Today (Re-visited)
  • The expansion of trade creates a global society, allowing people to exchange goods, services, and ideas throughout the world
  • African art, music, and dance remain very influential today