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How Response to Intervention Fits Into District Planning and Budgeting. Superintendent’s Conference October 24, 2008. Dr. Tim Thomas, Superintendent, NSSED Dr. Judy Hackett, Superintendent, NSSEO. Presentation Objectives.

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superintendent s conference october 24 2008

How Response to Intervention Fits Into District Planning and Budgeting

Superintendent’s Conference

October 24, 2008

Dr. Tim Thomas,

Superintendent, NSSED

Dr. Judy Hackett,

Superintendent, NSSEO

slide2

Presentation Objectives

  • Provide brief overview of Response to Intervention (RtI) and Problem Solving
  • Discuss the district resource allocations, including funding sources, available for RtI implementation
  • Discuss the driving force behind RtI implementation
  • Discuss the role of the superintendent in RtI leadership and district planning
  • Provide additional training resources
slide3

What about …

  • Helping a struggling student
  • Grouping students in a classroom for efficient instruction
  • Developing an intervention for the entire class
  • Reviewing school assessment results to help plan instruction
  • Determining if a student is eligible for special education
  • Developing a school-wide discipline plan
slide4

What about …

  • Helping a struggling student
  • Grouping students in a classroom for efficient instruction
  • Determining if a student is eligible for special education
  • Developing an intervention for the entire class
  • Reviewing school assessment results to help plan instruction
  • Developing a school-wide discipline plan

These are all examples of RtI

slide6

RtI is based on the following ideas

  • Meet needs of all students
  • Involve parents in a meaningful way
  • Provide a prevention model
  • Focus on improved instruction (goals)
  • Focus on results/accountability (outcomes)
  • Monitor student progress
  • Use “response to intervention” in decision- making
  • Allocate services through a building-based problem-solving team merging all building staff and resources
slide7

Big Ideas of RtI

  • Reliable, valid and instructional relevant assessments are used
  • Effective interventions result from good problem-solving, rather than good “testing”
  • Problem solving method is used to make decisions on a continuum of student needs
  • Progress monitoring is done best with “authentic” assessment that is sensitive to small changes in student academic and social behavior
  • Superintendents and building principals will know if students are achieving benchmarks, regardless of the student ‘label’
  • Maximum student benefit when scientifically-based instruction is delivered by highly qualified personnel
slide8

Big Ideas (continued)

  • Interventions must be “evidence based” (IDEA/NCLB)
  • Response to Intervention (RtI) is the best measure of problem “severity”
  • Data is used and analyzed to guide instructional decisions
  • Program eligibility (initial and continued) decisions are best made based on RtI
  • “Tiered” implementation improves service efficiency
  • Professional Development and ongoing coaching and support are provided to ensure effective instruction at all levels
slide10

Response to Intervention

Effective Teacher Research

“The teacher’s influence on student achievement scores is twenty times greater than any other variable, including class size and student poverty.”

(Dan Fallon, 2003)

Hinze/Gustafson July 2008

slide11

Response to Intervention

Effective Teacher Research

“The teacher’s influence on student achievement scores is twenty times greater than any other variable, including class size and student poverty.”

The obvious implication is that we need to provide support to teachers as soon as possible.

slide12

What is RtI?

Response to Intervention (RtI) is a useful decision-making “tool” and process. It is part of a systemic way of helping learners who are experiencing difficulty. RtI can be effectively used in a school system that uses scientifically-based problem solving and all its educational resources to help all students.

RtI Special Education Eligibility Only

RtI Specific Learning Disability Only

RtI Pre-referral Intervention Only

slide13

What is RtI?

Response to Intervention (RtI) is “the practice of providing (1) high-quality instruction/intervention matched to student needs and (2) using learning rate over time and level of performance to (3) make important educational decisions” (Batsche, et al., 2005). This means using differentiated instructional strategies for all learners, providing all learners with scientific, research-based interventions, continuously measuring student performance using scientifically research-based progress monitoring instruments for all learners and making educational decisions based on a student’s response to interventions.

RtI has three essential components: 1) using a three tier model of school supports, 2) utilizing a problem-solving method for decision-making, and 3) having an integrated data system that informs instruction.

The Illinois State Response to Intervention (RtI) Plan

January 1, 2008

slide14

What is RtI?

Response to Intervention (RtI) is “the practice of providing (1) high-quality instruction/intervention matched to student needs and (2) using learning rate over time and level of performance to (3) make important educational decisions” (Batsche, et al., 2005). This means using differentiated instructional strategies for all learners, providing all learners with scientific, research-based interventions, continuously measuring student performance using scientifically research-based progress monitoring instruments for all learners and making educational decisions based on a student’s response to interventions.

RtI has three essential components: 1) using a three tier model of school supports, 2) utilizing a problem-solving method for decision-making, and 3) having an integrated data system that informs instruction.

The Illinois State Response to Intervention (RtI) Plan

January 1, 2008

slide15

What is RtI?

Response to Intervention (RtI) is “the practice of providing (1) high-quality instruction/intervention matched to student needs and (2) using learning rate over time and level of performance to (3) make important educational decisions” (Batsche, et al., 2005). This means using differentiated instructional strategies for all learners, providing all learners with scientific, research-based interventions, continuously measuring student performance using scientifically research-based progress monitoring instruments for all learners and making educational decisions based on a student’s response to interventions.

RtI has three essential components: 1) using a three tier model of school supports, 2) utilizing a problem-solving method for decision-making, and 3) having an integrated data system that informs instruction.

The Illinois State Response to Intervention (RtI) Plan

January 1, 2008

slide16

1) Three-tier model of school supports:

Within an RtI framework, resources are allocated in

direct proportion to student needs. This framework is typically depicted as a three-tier model (see Figure 1) that utilizes increasingly more intense instruction and interventions. As Figure 1 shows, Tier 1 is the foundation and consists of scientific, research-based core instructional and behavioral methodologies, practices and supports designed for all students in the general curriculum. At Tier 2, supplemental instruction and interventions are provided in addition to core instruction to those students for whom data suggest additional instructional support is warranted. Tier 3 consists of intensive instructional interventions provided in addition to core instruction with the goal of increasing an individual student’s rate of progress.

slide17

Three Tiered Model of School Supports

Academic Systems

Behavioral Systems

Tier 3: Intensive, Individual Interventions

Individual Students

Assessment-based

High Intensity

Of longer duration

Tier 3: Intensive, Individual Interventions

Individual Students

Assessment-based

Intense, durable procedures

Tier 2: Targeted Group Interventions

Some students (at-risk)

High efficiency

Rapid response

Tier 2: Targeted Group Interventions

Some students (at-risk)

High efficiency

Rapid response

Students

Tier 1: Universal Interventions

All students

Preventive, proactive

Tier 1: Universal Interventions

All settings, all students

Preventive, proactive

Figure 1. Three-Tier Model of School Supports

Adapted from Response to Intervention: Policy Considerations and Implementation (Batsche, et al 2005).

slide18

2) Problem-solving method

of decision-making:

Across the tiers, the problem solving method is used to match instructional resources to educational need. The problem-solving method is as follows:

(a) Define the problem by determining the discrepancy between what is expected and what is occurring.

(b) Analyze the problem using data to determine why the discrepancy is occurring.

(c) Establish a student performance goal, develop an intervention plan to address the goal and delineate how the student’s progress will be monitored and implementation integrity will be ensured.

slide19

Problem Solving Process

A reflective, collaborative problem solving framework is implemented to determine effectiveness of instruction and used to make decisions within a multi-tier model:

  • 1. Is there a problem? What is it?
  • 2. Why is it happening?
  • 3. What are we going to do about it?
  • 4. Is it working?
slide20

Problem Solving Approach

to Service Delivery

Special Education

General Education

With Support

Response to Intervention

Intensity of

Resources –

Time and

Interventions

General Education

Intensity of Problem

slide21

3) Integrated data collection

that informs instruction:

Within an RtI model, progressively more intensive interventions and supports are coupled with more frequent progress monitoring of student achievement in order to guide the educational planning. At Tier 1 data are collected and are used as a general screening process for all students and to determine effectiveness of core instructional practices. At Tier 2 data are collected to determine the effectiveness of the intervention and determine if an instructional change is needed. At Tier 3, data are collected for the same reasons as Tier 2, but are collected on a more frequent basis so that educational decisions can be made in a timelier manner. Data systems used for screening and progress monitoring within an RtI model should be consistent across all three tiers and be scientifically-based.

slide22

Intensity and Frequency

of Data Collection

Academic Systems

Behavioral Systems

Tier 3: Intensive, Individual Interventions

Individual Students

Assessment-based

High Intensity

Of longer duration

Tier 3: Intensive, Individual Interventions

Individual Students

Assessment-based

Intense, durable procedures

Tier 2: Targeted Group Interventions

Some students (at-risk)

High efficiency

Rapid response

Tier 2: Targeted Group Interventions

Some students (at-risk)

High efficiency

Rapid response

Tier 1: Universal Interventions

All students

Preventive, proactive

Tier 1: Universal Interventions

All settings, all students

Preventive, proactive

Data Collection

and Frequency

Three-Tier Model of School Supports

Adapted from Response to Intervention: Policy Considerations and Implementation (Batsche, et al 2005).

slide24

Research on Problem-Solving/RtI

  • Increased focus on accuracy of referral process and response to proven interventions
  • RtI methods (local comparisons and multiple measurement) were superior to teacher referral for problem accuracy.
  • Teachers historically over-referred male students
  • Greater proportion of African American students responded successfully to intervention relative to similarly at-risk Caucasian students. Reduced disproportional placements.
  • Early intervention data is powerful, showing dramatic student progress
  • Support for training, ongoing coaching support and time to review data, participate in the process was important to successful implementation
  • Significant reduction in LD identification and placement when identification rates were higher than average (i.e. 20%)
  • (VanDerHeyden, Witt, and Naquin)
slide25

RtI Research

  • Research indicates that early intervention, particularly in the area of reading, is essential.
  • State/National data has shown that this data-driven process has been effective in improved student outcomes, staff and parent satisfaction and an enhanced, more comprehensive approach to addressing all the needs in a school district
  • Historical data has shown that increased rates of special education identification, in the area of Specific Learning Disability, has not always resulted in improved outcomes for students.
slide26

SpectrumK-12/CASE RtI Survey Results – 2008

  • 424 school districts across the US participated
  • 47% had a defined RtI process
  • For most districts, RtI expenditures make up less than 5% of the total special education budget
  • 26% of the survey participants reported that the permissible 15% of IDEA funding is allocated for RtI
  • Of districts w/ enough data collected, 3 times as many report improvement in AYP achievement, most significant increases when RtI reaches full implementation
  • 71% school districts report they are using it for all students
  • 75% report that there was NO change in staffing FTE
  • 32% expected full implementation by 2010
slide27

Elementary CBM Benchmark Data Results

With Improved Student Outcomes

Courtesy of Christine Martin, Indian Prairie School District, IL

slide28

Driving State Forces Influencing RtI

  • Review of historical trends in student achievement
  • History of Flexible Service Delivery system
  • Increasing special education identification rates over the years.
  • Careful review and analysis of AYP status
  • State strategic plans/grant focus- comprehensive approach
  • Positive change in state leadership
slide29

Illinois IDEIA Part 226.130 Rules

Requires:

  • use of a process that determines how the child responds to scientific, research-based interventions as part of the evaluation procedure described in 34 CFR 300.309
  • development and distribution of a State RtI Plan by January 1, 2008 by the State Superintendent in collaboration with professional organizations outlining the professional development that is necessary and other activities and resources that are essential for implementation
slide30

State Regulatory Language on RtI

  • Section 226.130
  • Additional Procedures for Students Suspected of or Having a Specific Learning Disability
  • (a) School districts must adhere to procedures ..when evaluating a student who is suspected of having, or has been identified as having, a SLD
  • (b) … January 1, 2008 … prepare and disseminate a plan outlining the nature and scope of professional development that is necessary to permit implementation of a process of this type and describing any additional activities or resources that the Superintendent finds to be essential
slide31

State Regulatory Language on RtI

Section 226.130 (continued)

  • method of identifying school districts that are less able than others to implement RtI without technical or financial assistance from the State;
  • time frame for the provision of training, technical assistance, materials or financial resources
  • method of allocating resources that affords first consideration to districts that may otherwise be unable to implement RtI
  • (c) No later than January 1, 2009, school districts must develop a plan for their transition to the use of an RtI process as part of the required evaluation procedure for determining whether a child has a SLD.
slide32

State Regulatory Language on RtI

Section 226.130 (continued)

  • District plans must:
  • Identify resources the district will devote to this purpose
  • Include an outline of the types of State-level assistance the district expects to need
  • (d) By the beginning of the 2010-2011 school year, school districts must implement the use of an RtI process as part of the evaluation procedure for a child who may or has been previously identified as having a SLD.
  • (e) When a school district implements the use of RtI, the district may not use a child’s participation in the process as a basis for denying a parent’s request for an evaluation.
  • (f) School districts may, but are not required to, continue to use the discrepancy formula for determining whether a child has a SLD.
slide33

Major RtI Planning Themes

  • Value and understanding: Consensus
  • Infrastructure
  • III. Implementation
slide34

Major Planning Themes

Consensus

Infrastructure

Implementation

slide35

District Planning: RtI themes

  • RtI is:
  • Driven by Embedded
  • Professional Development
  • Data-Based Decision-Making
  • Supported by Coaching
  • Guided by IL State Plan
  • Structured/Operationalized by District Plan
  • Implemented by School Plans
slide36

Major Planning Themes

Consensus

  • District Self Assessment Review
  • Establishing District Priorities
  • Determining Supports
slide37

Major Planning Themes

Infrastructure

  • Assessment
  • Data collection
  • Teaming
  • Decision making
  • Intervention Supports
slide38

District Infrastructure:

What Needs to be in Place

  • Policies/procedures
  • Clearly defined model and steps – skills needed
  • Decision-making rules coupled with intervention development
  • Expectations for Tier Function/Integration
  • Data Collection System and How to interpret Data
  • Intervention Development
  • Intervention Integrity and Documentation
slide40

Major Planning Themes

Implementation

  • District Curriculum
  • Vertical Programming
  • Teacher-made materials
  • Implementation Integrity
  • Evidence-based strategies
slide41

Next Steps for Districts

  • Establish a district leadership team
  • Gather current district information/plans
  • Determine what other information you need to continue plan development
  • Establish timelines for plan development – consider multi-year approach
  • Determine evaluation methods and process
slide42

Create a District Leadership Team with Representatives from…

  • Assessment
  • Bilingual
  • Curriculum/Instruction
  • General Education
  • Parent
  • Principal
  • Central Office Administration
  • Professional Development
  • Special Education
  • Technology
slide43

Focus Areas for the District Leadership Team

  • Assess district and school needs
  • Develop and define expectations
  • Expect accountability
  • Create a district RtI plan to guide ongoing
  • efforts
  • Plan professional development and supports
  • Build consensus
  • Communicate to stakeholders
  • Obtain or allocate other resources
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of efforts
  • Plan for sustainability
slide44

Next Steps for Districts

  • Establish a district leadership team
  • Gather current district
  • information/plans
  • Determine what other information you need to continue plan development
  • Establish timelines for plan development – consider multi-year approach
  • Determine evaluation methods and process
slide45

Gather

District Information on…

  • Current Assessments for Purposes of Screening, Diagnostic and Progress Monitoring
  • Current Instructional Practices Across the Tiers
  • Current District and School Improvement Plans
  • Current Professional Development Plan and Needs Assessments
slide46

Next Steps for Districts

  • Establish a district leadership team
  • Gather current district information/plans
  • Determine what other information you need to continue plan development
  • Establish timelines for plan development – consider multi-year approach
  • Determine evaluation methods and process
slide48

Next Steps for Districts

  • Establish a district leadership team
  • Gather current district information/plans
  • Determine what other information you need to continue plan development
  • Establish timelines for plan development – consider multi-year approach
  • Determine evaluation methods and process
slide49

Shared District Vision of Outcomes

  • Maximum effect of core instruction for all students
  • Targeted instruction and interventions for at-risk students
  • Significant improvement in pro-social behaviors
  • Reduction in over-representation of diverse student groups in low academic performance, special education, suspension and expulsion
  • Overall improvement in student achievement rates
  • Maximize efficiency of teaching and learning
slide50

Next Steps for Districts

  • Establish a district leadership team
  • Gather current district information/plans
  • Determine what other information you need to continue plan development
  • Establish timelines for plan development –consider multi-year approach
  • Determine evaluation methods and process
slide52

Resources/Funding/Budgeting for RtI

  • Defining resource allocations
  • Funding sources – Grants, professional development monies, 15% of IDEA funds
  • Allotted staffing to implement RtI-blended approach
  • Staffing roles, flexibility, allocation
  • Finding time – creative scheduling with blocks of time, common planning, use of specials
  • Shifts in assessment, implementation of strategies
  • Professional development, embedded support
slide53

Funding Resources….

  • According to the US Dept of Education
  • “Generally, Title I, [school-wide Title I] … funds may be used to fund progress monitoring if it is used to determine the response to an intervention that may be funded by Title I, … funds.”
  • Therefore, school-wide Title I funds may be used to purchase progress monitoring tools.
slide54

Superintendent’s

Role in RtI Process

slide55

Data Driven Decision Making Strategies

  • Data driven decision making strategy
  • Provides easy access to quality data
  • Provides teachers more effective tools to monitor and shape student progress
  • Assists administrators in identifying what’s working and how to allocate resources
  • Allows the district to demonstrate compliance with NCLB requirements – SIP/DIP
slide56

Work Smarter, Not Harder…

  • Analyze roles, goals, and measurable outcomes of each school team
  • Combine teams with similar goals and outcomes
  • Eliminate those goals that do not generate measurable outcomes
  • Less is more …
slide57

Superintendent’s Role in Sustainable Change

  • Top Down and Bottom Up
  • Understandable and Powerful
  • Organized and Tightly Managed
  • Gain commitment by NOT demanding commitment
  • Site generic – part of the district culture/expectations
  • Externally motivated
  • Driven by policy/practice
  • Guided by blueprints/plan/framework
  • Consensus building is the same across all levels - school/district
slide58

Leading the Process

  • Provide Leadership, support and collaborative effort
  • Develop common language/understanding for staff
  • Review/revise applicable district policies/practices over time
  • Increase emphasis on data and accountability – for results
  • Provide technological support to improve efficiency – data analysis, strategies
  • Give permission and opportunities for flexibility of roles/practices
  • Ensure system/plan to evaluate effectiveness of core instruction
slide60

Available RtI Training

  • ASPIRE (Alliance for School-Based Problem Solving and Intervention Resources in Education) is a 5 year federally funded personnel development grant that IL is receiving to provide training and technical assistance. State and regional training includes problem solving cycle training, RtI leadership training and RtI eligibility training this year.
  • www.illinoisaspire.org – has the updates of training and materials across the state.
  • www.isbe.net The state website has been upgraded and has a link to RtI resources, the state plan, the March webcast.
slide61

Resources

  • www.whatworks.ed.gov – provides current information and updates on intervention strategies that work
  • www.studentprogress.org – provides information and technical assistance on progress monitoring techniques
  • www.promisingpractices.net – website with strategies and practices that work with students
  • www.interventioncentral.com – very popular website for interventions for many different areas of focus
  • www.rti4success.org – National center for RtI, includes powerpoint presentations, information from RtI summit, etc
  • www.nasdse.org - national organization of state directors of special education. Have published booklets on Response to Intervention, Resource Bibliography, Blueprints for Schools and Districts that you can download for free.
workshop summary points
Workshop Summary Points

Response to Intervention:

is about research-based instruction and interventions, accountability and student outcomes

is part of one connected instructional and intervention system

is built on a comprehensive problem solving process

uses multiple sources of data to make decisions

requires resources – staffing adjustments, technology, time, scheduling and curriculum/assessment review

and alignment

requires flexibility, training and coaching support

slide63

Big Thinking

Precedes Great Achievement

W. Petersen