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Chapter 28. War and Peace. Road to Pearl Harbor. Japan’s attack on China caused US alarm as to trade status – Open Door Policy Japan declared policy obsolete US retaliated by loaning money to China and asking US munitions makers not to sell to Japan

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chapter 28

Chapter 28

War and Peace

road to pearl harbor
Road to Pearl Harbor
  • Japan’s attack on China caused US alarm as to trade status – Open Door Policy
  • Japan declared policy obsolete
  • US retaliated by loaning money to China and asking US munitions makers not to sell to Japan
  • Sep 1940 – US stopped sale of scrap iron to Japan – Japan retaliated by signing alliance with Germany and Italy
road to pearl harbor1
Road to Pearl Harbor
  • FDR extended embargo to machine tools
  • Neither Japan nor US wanted war – US made demands Japan refused to meet concerning expansion in Asia
  • Japanese code broken – US knew attack imminent
pearl harbor
Pearl Harbor
  • Surprise attack knocked US Pacific fleet out of action
  • 2,300 killed 1,100 wounded
  • Admiral Kimmel and General Short blamed
  • Defeat due to confusion and poor communication at all levels
mobilizing the home front
Mobilizing the Home Front
  • Though Democrats retained majorities in both houses, conservatives kept lid on many of FDR’s initiatives
  • Roosevelt good war leader but poor administrator – inspired the nation towards war effort but administration mired in confusion, inefficiency, bickering
mobilizing the home front1
Mobilizing the Home Front
  • War caused huge increase in production effectively ending the Depression
  • The South saw a revival with more manufacturing also establishment of many military camps
  • By December 1941, Depression-era administrations squabbling with industry over resources, etc. FDR refused to get involved
the war economy
The War Economy
  • By 1943 economy was being managed by Office of War Mobilization under former Supreme Court Justice Byrnes
  • Rents, wages, food prices were strictly regulated
  • Important food and other items were rationed
the war economy1
The War Economy
  • Labor shortages caused by draft and increased manufacturing gave unions more power
  • FDR created National War Labor Board to arbitrate disputes between labor and management
  • Coal strike caused Congress to give president power to take over any war plant threatened by a strike
the war economy2
The War Economy
  • Despite war, average citizen saw no drop in standard of living
  • Production of cars ceased and gas severely rationed but all other civilian activities went on
  • Meat, sugar, shoes rationed but average needs met
  • Skirts shortened, cuffs disappeared, as did vests to conserve cloth
the war economy3
The War Economy
  • Federal government spent more $ between 1941-1945 than in its entire previous history
  • National debt rose from <$49 billion to >$260 billion
  • More than 40% of expenditures met through taxation – high taxes on high incomes
  • Annual incomes limited to $25,000
the war economy4
The War Economy
  • Taxes paid even by the poorest segments of society
  • First time taxes withheld by employers
  • Tax policies resulted in smaller wealth gap
war and social change
War and Social Change
  • Migrations to new industrial areas
  • Population of California rose >50 %
  • Marriage rate rose as did birth rate
  • Population increased 3 million during 1930’s – in next five years it rose 6.5 million
minorities in war
Minorities in War
  • Blacks treated better in military than in WWI
  • Segregation still maintained in all services
  • Segregation led to several small riots and mutinies
  • US Navy continued to keep blacks in demeaning non-combat tasks
  • Doris “Dorie” Miller
minorities in war1
Minorities in War
  • Black economic situation improved
    • More employed
    • Migration to Northern cities
    • Acquired more advanced skills
    • Concentration in ghettos increased political clout
  • NAACP adopted a more militant stance
  • Whites reacted to black advancements with strikes – riots erupted killing blacks and whites
minorities in war2
Minorities in War
  • Thousands of Mexicans came north to take jobs – most jobs menial
  • Work plentiful and standards of living rose
  • Many Mexican-Americans served in military
  • Zoot Suit Riots
  • Indian assimilation was encouraged - >24,000 served in the war while others moved to cities and worked in factories
slide16

Who's that whisperin' in the trees?It's two sailors and they're on leavePipes and chains and swingin' handsWho's your daddy, yes I am

Fat cat came to play now he can't run fast enoughYou had best stay away when the pushers come to shove

Zoot suit riot, (Riot) Throw back a bottle of beerZoot suit riot (Riot) Pull a comb through your coal black hairZoot suit riot, (Riot) Throw back a bottle of beerZoot suit riot (Riot) Pull a comb through your coal black hairBlow Daddy

A whipped up jitterbuggin' brown eyed manA stray cat frontin' up an eight-piece bandCut me Sammy and you'll understandIn my veins hot music ran

You got me in a sway, and I want to swing you doneNow you sailors know, where your women come for love

Zoot suit riot, (Riot) Throw back a bottle of beerZoot suit riot (Riot) Pull a comb through your coal black hairZoot suit riot, (Riot) Throw back a bottle of beerZoot suit riot (Riot) Pull a comb through your coal black hair

You're in a Zoot Suit riot

Zoot zy-ow - Zoot za zoo zay Hey al-oo-ay-en - zay zay zayZoot zy-ay-ay ow - Zoot za zoo zay Ze-zoo-ze-zehoo - day de day

You got me in a sway, and I want to swing you doneNow you sailors know, where your women come for love

Zoot suit riot, (Riot) Throw back a bottle of beerZoot suit riot (Riot) Pull a comb through your coal black hairZoot suit riot, (Riot) Throw back a bottle of beerZoot suit riot (Riot) Pull a comb through your coal black hair

You're in a zoot suit riot

the japanese internment
The Japanese Internment
  • Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor made many fear Japanese sabotage – all Japanese potential enemies
  • FDR allowed Japanese to be rounded up and interned in camps throughout the West
  • Japanese hurt and angry – some fought in courts but lost
  • 442nd Regimental Combat Team
women at war
Women at War
  • Women worked in almost all fields including high-paying industrial jobs
  • Others enlisted in women military auxiliaries
  • Men initially resistant – “women not capable”
  • Demand for labor broke all barriers
  • Loneliness brought on infidelity and divorce rates skyrocketed
allied strategy europe
Allied Strategy - Europe
  • Allies decided to tackle Europe first
  • USSR and Britain had backs to wall
  • Allied planes began bombing German cities from 1942 on
  • First American assault on North Africa
    • Churchill’s motives
    • Vichy French – Admiral Darlan
    • Kasserine Pass
allied strategy europe1
Allied Strategy - Europe
  • Attack on Sicily
  • Attack on Italy – surrender of Italy
    • Monte Cassino
    • Anzio
  • D-Day
  • Patton’s drive east
  • Operation Market-Garden
  • Battle of the Bulge
allied strategy europe2
Allied Strategy - Europe
  • Remagen
  • Race to Berlin
  • Concentration camps
  • May – VE Day
  • Deaths of Roosevelt & Hitler
war in the pacific
War in the Pacific
  • Battle of the Coral Sea – carrier battle – peak of Japanese expansion
  • Midway – Japan goes on defense
  • Douglas MacArthur
  • Island Hopping
    • Guadalcanal
    • Tarawa, Saipan, Guam
    • Philippines
war in the pacific1
War in the Pacific
  • Kamikazes
  • Battle of Leyte Gulf
  • Iwo Jima and Okinawa
  • Invasion of the Japanese home islands?
the atomic bomb
The Atomic Bomb
  • The Manhattan Project
  • Uranium and plutonium
  • J. Robert Oppenheimer
  • Hiroshima – 6 August
  • Nagasaki – 9 August
  • VJ-Day – 15 August
wartime diplomacy
Wartime Diplomacy
  • US pushed image of Russia (USSR) as a friend during war
  • Russia appeared to back US plans for post-WWII world including UN
  • Russia: seeking domination or security?
yalta and potsdam
Yalta and Potsdam
  • Yalta
    • US agreed to Russian annexation of Poland in return for free elections
    • Discussed partition of Germany
    • Agreed to establishment of UN
  • Potsdam
    • Allies agreed on war crimes trials
    • Confirmed division of Germany into occupied zones
    • Called on surrender of Japan