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Growing the Library Collection Despite Budget Limitations March 200 7. Peter Kung Pi-chien EBSCO Publishing. The Challenge. Library budgets are not keeping pace with increases in journal subscription prices

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growing the library collection despite budget limitations march 200 7

Growing the Library CollectionDespite Budget LimitationsMarch 2007

Peter Kung Pi-chien

EBSCO Publishing

the challenge
The Challenge
  • Library budgets are not keeping pace with increases in journal subscription prices
  • Full text databases provide large supplemental collections of journalswith affordable pricing, but these resources are not stable enough toreplace journal subscriptions
library budgets are not keeping pace with increases in journal subscription prices
Library budgets are notkeeping pace with increasesin journal subscription prices
  • During the period 2000 to 2004, journal publisherprice increases ranged from 27% to 94%, dependingon the publisher
  • Taken from “Scholarly Journal Prices: Selected Trends and Comparisons” by Sonya White & Claire Creaser, published in LISU Occasional Paper 34, October 2004(in cooperation with Loughborough University, UK)
  • From 2000 through 2005, the average annual journal subscription price increase was between 7.5% and 8.5%
  • Taken from studies done by EBSCO Subscription Services
full text databases can be the answer but it is crucial to understand database turmoil
Full text databases can bethe answer, but it is crucialto understand database turmoil
  • There are four types of full text database turmoil
    • Naturally ceased journals
    • Journal name changes
    • Unnaturally halted journals
    • Journals removed completely
categories of full text turmoil
Categories of Full-Text “Turmoil”

Full-Text Ends Naturally

  • Publisher stops publishing entirely, for example:
    • Yahoo! Internet Life
    • The Sciences (New York Academy of Sciences)
    • Lingua Franca
  • Publisher changes the name of the publication, for example:
    • Journal of Health Care Marketing(now called Marketing Health Services)
    • Personnel & Guidance Journal(now called Journal of Counseling & Development)
categories of full text turmoil1
Categories of Full-Text “Turmoil”

Full-Text Ends Unnaturally

  • New publisher acquires a previously licensed journal, for example:
  • Elsevier acquired JAI Press and terminated licenses with aggregators
  • Sage acquired Acta Sociologica and terminated licenses with aggregators
  • Publisher determines that they no longer wish to license full text
  • e.g. Science (AAAS)
  • This kind of turmoil is sometimes referred to as “embargoed”,but they would be more correctly labeled as “infinitely embargoed”or “indefinitely embargoed”
  • These “infinitely embargoed” journals are very different than journals with a 3-month, 6-month, or 12-month embargo
  • “Infinitely embargoed” journals appear on title lists in the full-text title counts and there is no notation that they are embargoed in any way the librarian must check for a full-text end date (and no indexing end date)
categories of full text turmoil2
Categories of Full-Text “Turmoil”

Full-Text Removed Completely

  • Courts decide that the publisher is not actually the rights holder, for example:
    • Tasini vs. The New York Times
      • Some general magazines and many backfile articles were pulledout of aggregated databases (almost no affect on academic journals)
    • Greenberg v. National Geographic
      • A New York district court has ruled that National Geographic caninclude freelance photography in the archive CD-ROM, but the impacton imbedded images in full-text databases is still unknown(either way, there should be little or no impact on academic journals)
categories of full text turmoil3
Categories of Full-Text “Turmoil”

Full-Text Removed Completely

  • Product management decision by the aggregator
    • sometimes publishers make changes to their agreements that cause aggregators to remove (and replace) journals from specific databases
    • these decisions are driven by behind-the-scenes publisher/aggregator considerations that will not likely be shared with the library community
  • Aggregator abstracts grey literature and provides a linkto the website where the content was originally available
    • websites change and links can go to a dead end
    • working papers are an excellent example
categories of full text turmoil4
Categories of Full-Text “Turmoil”

Full-Text Completely Removed

  • Publisher decides to remove all backfiles (and the aggregatordoes not have “past content rights”), for example:
  • Journal of Finance pulled out of ABI/INFORM
  • Harvard Business Review pulled out of ABI/INFORM
  • JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Associationpulled out of ProQuest Research Library
why do publishers pull out of full text databases
Why Do Publishers Pull Outof Full-Text Databases
  • Exclusive agreement with a single aggregator
  • Policy decision to only work with subscription agents
  • Perceived negative impact on existing or potential print or e-journal subscriptions
  • New ventures
  • Find full-text of their articles free on the web,due to sub-licensing by the aggregator
  • Discover that their full-text is available online by loose interpretation of an old microfilm agreement
notification how are customers notified of content changes
Notification:How are customers notified of content changes?
  • Generally, you will never see an aggregator do a press release or announcement saying, “We will soon lose all journals from Publisher X”
  • Even if the aggregator wanted to do such an announcement, it is unlikely the publisher would want such an announcement to be sent
  • Title Change Reports are provided in Excel (available now from some aggregators, including EBSCO)
  • Email alerting services are often available for title changes
  • MARC Records
full text database misuse has a negative impact on all parties
Full Text Database Misuse Hasa Negative Impact on All Parties

cancels a journaldue to availabilityin a database

loses the current issues of the journal inthe database and must pay more for the database upon renewal (or, loses the current issues and all backfiles of the journal)

loses revenue, investigates and responds by…

…receives a rate increase from the publisher and is forced to embargo the publisher’s journals [or full text may be removed completely]

recommended factors for journal subscription cancellation analysis
Recommended Factors for Journal Subscription Cancellation Analysis
  • 1.) Importance of the discipline(s) covered by the journal (to the university)
    • Number of courses offered
    • Number of students
    • Degree(s) offered
recommended factors for journal subscription cancellation analysis1
Recommended Factors for Journal Subscription Cancellation Analysis
  • 2.) Prestige of the journal
    • Number of citations in other journals
    • ISI Impact Factor
    • Journal ranking studies
recommended factors for journal subscription cancellation analysis2
Recommended Factors for Journal Subscription Cancellation Analysis
  • 3.) Involvement of Faculty
    • Is a faculty member the Editor?
    • Is a faculty member on the review board?
    • Is a faculty member publishingin the journal on a regular basis?
    • Is a faculty member citing thisjournal on a regular basis?
recommended factors for journal subscription cancellation analysis3
Recommended Factors for Journal Subscription Cancellation Analysis

4.) Number of issues, papers, or pages published annually (vs. the annual cost of a subscription)

For example: Journal “X” may cost$2,400 per year while Journal “Y”may only cost $1,200 per year.However, if Journal “X” is published monthly, and, if Journal “Y” is published quarterly,then Journal “X” offers a greater value relativeto the annual number of issues:Journal “X” costs $200 per issueJournal “Y” costs $300 per issue

recommended factors for journal subscription cancellation analysis4
Recommended Factors for Journal Subscription Cancellation Analysis

5.) Cost of the journal

This year’s subscription fee

recommended factors for journal subscription cancellation analysis5
Recommended Factors for Journal Subscription Cancellation Analysis

6.) Will pricing of this journal/publisherbe a problem in the future?

Historical analysis of price increasesby publisher

A publisher notorious for large price increases is likely to continue this practice

With acquisition, the parent company’s reputation and philosophy are paramount (e.g. Gordon & Breach acquired by the more reputable Taylor & Francis)

recommended factors for journal subscription cancellation analysis6
Recommended Factors for Journal Subscription Cancellation Analysis
  • 7.) Access limitations
    • Course usage allowed?
    • Simultaneous user restrictions?
    • User group restrictions?
elimination of duplication can free up funds
Elimination of DuplicationCan Free Up Funds
  • Instead of focusing on duplication between journal subscriptions and full text databases (1.00 + 0.01 = 1.01, NOT 2.00)…
  • …Libraries should focus on duplication between journal indexes
  • Most universities are buying at least some indexes that are almost entirely covered by other indexes held by the library
collection growth may be obtained through overlap analysis
Collection growth may beobtained through overlap analysis
  • Reduce overlap of indexes to free up funds
  • Acquire additional full text databases only if they offer substantial unique content vs. the library’s existing collection
  • how many unique full text journals
  • how many unique full text journal years
  • how many unique full text non-journal sources (e.g. books, reports, conference papers, etc.)