Conflicts in Africa. Rwanda & Darfur. United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide ( 1948 ) “Genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:
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Conflicts in Africa Rwanda & Darfur
United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (1948) “Genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: (a) Killing members of the group; (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to group (c) Deliberately inflicting conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.”
History of the Conflict • Two major ethnic groups in Rwanda • Hutus (majority popul. – 85%) • Tutsis (minority of popul. – 14%) • Speak same language, follow same traditions, live in same areas • So what happened???
History of the Conflict • Rwanda was colonized by • Germany (1894-1916) • Belgium (WWI-1962) • Belgians favored the Tutsis over Hutus • Tutsis were more similar to Europeans • Tutsis given higher status (better jobs, housing, & education) • Resentment among Hutu grew
Conflict Grows • Hutus began to form nationalist party in 1959 • Killings of Tutsi (20,000 in one year) • Tutsi refugees fled to Uganda • Rwanda gained independence from Belgium in 1961 • Rwanda becomes its own republic state in 1962 • Conflict lasting between Hutu government & Tutsi rebels • Tutsi refugees form Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF)
The Conflict Grows • Two extremist Hutu militias • Interahamwe • “those who stand together”, “those who work together”, “those who fight together” • Backed by Hutu gov’t • Impuzamugambi • “those who have the same goal” • Hutu miliia
Fast Forward to 1990s”: Catalyst to Genocide • President Juvenal Habyarimana’s plane was shot down in April 1994 • Responsibility for attack is disputed • Both RPF (Tutsis) & Hutu extremists blamed
The Tragedy • April 29, 1994 – radio broadcasts urge elimination of Tutsis • 1/7th of population slaughtered • Within 2 weeks 250,000 Tutsis & moderate Hutus killed • 800,000 Rwandans killed between April & July • RPF stated that 1,071,000 were killed, 10% of which were Hutu • African Rights estimates the number “as around 750,000” • Human Rights Watch at least 500,000
Aftermath & Continuing Conflict • RPF gains control of provisional gov’t • Hutu refugees flee (mainly Interahamwe) • Continue violence against Tutsis in refugee camps • International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda • Was international community too slow in responding to the crisis?
Darfur, Sudan • Sudan is the largest country by area in Africa • Darfur is a region in western Sudan, approximately the size of Texas • 6 million people used to live in Darfur UChicago STAND
History of Conflict in Darfur • Sudan’s borders encompass many ethnic and religious groups • North: Arab, Muslim • South: African, Christian • Darfur: African, Muslim, Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa tribes • Northern Sudan was constructed without ties to Southern Sudan, and the Darfur region wasn’t annexed as a province of Sudan until 1916, almost 50 years after the North and South were unified. UChicago STAND
History of the Conflict in Darfur • 1956 Sudan gains independence from British rule • Civil war between North and South from 1955-1972 and again from 1983-2002 • South Sudanese not represented in Khartoum government • While oil was discovered in Southern Sudan in the 1970s, the Khartoum government demanded all of the oil revenues be funneled to the national government • Peace agreement in 2003 UChicago STAND
In 2003, two rebel groups from Darfur rise up against the Sudanese government • Sudanese Liberation Movement (pictured) • Justice and Equality Movement The political aim of the rebel groups is to compel to Sudanese government to address underdevelopment and political marginalization of the region . UChicago STAND
Janjaweed • Sudanese government arms Janjaweed militia, comprised mostly of members of Arab nomadic tribes who have been in conflict with settled farmers in Darfur. Janjaweed kill and expel Darfurians • Janjaweed has been translated as “devil on a horse” in Arabic Janjaweed in military fatigues in Geneina. UChicago STAND
Janjaweed Tactics • In addition to killing and expelling members of a village, the Janjaweed burn their food stores so that the survivors cannot return. A government soldier burning the food storage of the villagers in Marla. UChicago STAND
Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) & Refugees • 2.5 million refugees and IDPs in Sudan and neighboring Chad. Three generations of farmers, formerly self-sufficient, now forced to live in a camp. • Thousands die each month from the effects of inadequate food, water, health care, and shelter in a harsh desert environment. Pictured are graves outside and IDP camp. UChicago STAND
International Responses & Challenges • In July 2004, Congress declared the crisis in Darfur to be a genocide. In September 2004, on behalf of the U.S. government, Secretary of State Colin Powell followed suit. • First time a genocide declared as such while in progress • In February 2005, the U.S. led the U.N. to pass the first resolution to send a peacekeeping mission to Darfur. • September 2006: U.N. resolution authorizing the deployment of 17,000 peacekeepers with a Chapter VII mandate to protect. • But only with the consent of the Sudanese government. • Sudanese government adamantly refuses to consent, as they are sponsoring the genocide. UChicago STAND
International Responses & Challenges • Currently 7,000 African Union troops on the ground. This is the size of the police force of Dallas in a region the size of Texas • Insufficient mandate to actively protect civilians • Under-funded • Lacking training and technology • Lacking manpower – overstretched UChicago STAND
International Responses & Challenges • China, Russia, Malaysia and India’s investments in Sudanese oil fund the Khartoum government’s perpetuation of genocide. • China and Russia are also on the United Nation’s security council • The US Congress has passed significant pieces of legislation on Darfur. These include funding for peacekeepers in Darfur and reauthorization of economic sanctions against Sudan. • Connection with Sudan in war on terror UChicago STAND
South Sudan Becomes Independent • Republic of South Sudan – 2011 • Capital = Juba • Disputes still remain "Justice, Liberty, Prosperity" Salva Kiir Mayardit, the first elected President of South Sudan. His trademark hat was a gift from then-President of the US George W. Bush UChicago STAND
Sources • UChicago STAND (A Student Anti- Genocide Coalition) • New Jersey Darfur Coalition • HistoryWorld.net • www.filmeducation.org