Who were the Vikings?. The Vikings were a group of people from a region of Northern Europe called Scandinavia . Today, Scandinavia includes the nations of Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, & Iceland.
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1. runestones: large stones w/inscriptions written in runes (Northern European alphabet created before the period of Christian conversion)
2. annals or chronicles: histories written by monks whose monasteries were attacked
3. sagas: Vikings’ stories based on oral history (retold from memory). Ex. Vinland Saga
4. archaeology: bone artifacts from Viking settlements (Ex. Viking ship burials)
The Swedes went beyond the Baltic away from Christian Europe into Russia, Constantinople, an Baghdad.