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Warm-up. List 3 new things you learned about bacteria. Genetic engineering. Recombinant DNA technology. Why are we using bacteria for biotechnology rather than some other organsism?. What are some characteristics that make bacteria a good choice for genetic engineering?

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Warm up
Warm-up

  • List 3 new things you learned about bacteria.


Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering

Recombinant DNA technology


Why are we using bacteria for biotechnology rather than some other organsism
Why are we using bacteria for biotechnology rather than some other organsism?

  • What are some characteristics that make bacteria a good choice for genetic engineering?

    (think and then talk with your partner)


Bacterial plasmids
Bacterial plasmids other organsism?

Most bacterial DNA is on a single large chromosome, but some DNA is in small circles called plasmids.

  • Plasmids can have genes which make bacteria resistant to antibiotics

  • Plasmids can be passed between bacteria


Plasmids can be manipulated easily in the laboratory
Plasmids can be manipulated easily in the laboratory other organsism?

  • Plasmids can be collected from bacteria

  • Restriction enzymes can cut specific sequences of DNA

  • Ligase (enzyme) can paste pieces of DNA together

  • Bacteria can be transformed by taking in plasmids given to them


Cutting and pasting dna
Cutting and Pasting DNA other organsism?

  • Restriction enzymes act like molecular scissors – they cut the DNA!

  • Ligaseacts like molecular glue – it is used to reconnect the DNA that has been cut by restriction enzymes.


A restriction enzyme bamh i

GATCC other organsism?

G

G

CCTAG

A Restriction Enzyme: BamH I


Transforming bacteria
Transforming other organsism? Bacteria

  • When a bacterial cell takes in a plasmid from the environment, it has new DNA (and therefore, new traits).

  • Scientists say that the bacteria has been transformed.


Exit powerpoint and open files in internet explorer
Exit PowerPoint and open files in Internet Explorer: other organsism?

  • Gene engineering cartoon.swf

  • Gene engineering video.swf


How to produce human insulin from bacteria
How to produce human insulin from bacteria other organsism?

  • Isolate plasmid DNA from bacteria and insulin gene from human.

  • Cut both DNAs with the same restriction enzyme.

  • Mix the DNA together with ligase.

  • Insert the new DNA into bacteria (transformation).

  • Use antibiotics to kill any bacteria without the plasmid.

  • Grow bacteria and harvest the insulin.


How to produce human insulin from bacteria1
How to produce human insulin from bacteria other organsism?

  • Isolate plasmid DNA from bacteria and insulin gene from human.

  • Cut both DNAs with the same restriction enzyme.

  • Mix the DNA together with ligase.

  • Insert the new DNA into bacteria (transformation).

  • Use antibiotics to kill any bacteria without the plasmid.

  • Grow bacteria and harvest the insulin.


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